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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General definition of stem cells
Cell that can either:
1.) Divide and give rise to itself.
2.) Divide and give rise to something different (differentiation)
The types of regulation on stem cells in physiological conditions X 3.
1. Self renewal
2. Quiescence
3. Differentiation
Rate of stem cell reproduction.
Very slow
What type of cells do stem cells usually give rise to?
Progenitor cells
Development of mature cell from stem cells.
Stem cell -> Progenitor cell --> Precursor cell --> Mature cell
What is the key difference between progenitor and stem cells?
The ability to self-renew.
Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is produced by what?
T-cells (Th1 and Th2)
Interleukin 3 (IL-3) binds to what?
The IL-3 receptors of the progenitor cells
What is the function of Interleukin 3 (IL-3)? X 3
1.) Maintains stem cells
2.) Maintains early progenitors
3.) Induces proliferation
T/F - Interleukin 3 induces differentiation.
Stem Cell Factor AKA? x 3
1. Steel factor
2. Mast Cell Growth factor
3. c-kit ligand
Stem cell Factor produced by?
Stromal cells
Stem Cell Factors bind to what?
c-kit on Progenitors
Stem Cell Factors functions? x3
1. Maintains stem cells
2. Maintains early progenitors
3. Induces proliferation
T/F - Stem Cell Factors induce differentiation.
Name four factors important for late progenitors.
1. EPO (Erythropoietin)
2. GM-CSF (Granulocyte/Monocyte Colony Stimulating Factor)
3. G-CSF (Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor)
4. M-CSF (Monocyte Colony Stimulating Factor)
What is the function of factor EPO?
A factor for late progenitors, it is needed for RBC development.
What is the function of factor GM-CSF?
A factor for LATE progenitors, it works on common granulocyte/monocyte precursors.
What is the function of factor G-CSF?
A factor for LATE progenitors, it works on granulocyte commited progenitors.
What is the function of M-CSF?
A factor for late progenitors, it works on monocyte/macrophages progenitors.
What are the mechanisms of regulation for Hematopoiesis. x 5
1. Control of cytokine production by stromal cells
2. Movement of of developing cells from one microenvironment to another.
3. Production of cytokines by non-stromal cells.
4. Up- or down-regulate cytokine receptor expression by developing cells.
5. Removal of developing (and developed) cells by apoptosis.
Give an example of control of cytokine production by stromal cells.
Stomal cells can alter the microenvironment (depending on tissue area) to develop specific cytokines.
Give an example of hematopoiesis regulation mechanism involving movement of developing cells from one microenvironment to another.
Developing T-cells leave the bone marrow and develop in the thymus to become mature.
Give an example of cytokine production by non-stromal cells.
Activated immune cells will provide feedback to the bone marrow for increased production of specific cytokines.
Where are the developmental sites of hematopoiesis and include time frame?
At fetus --> Yolk Sac, then followed by development in liver.
At Neonate --> Spleen
At Adult --> Bone Marrow