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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PIP2 (Phosphotidyl Inosital 4,5 bisphosphate) is produced from what molecule?
Phosphotidyl Inosital
The classical phosphoinosital pathyway depends on what molecule?
What are the enzymes needed to make PIP2? x2
PI 4 kinase
PI 4 phosphate 5 kinase
What is the name of the trimeric G protein associated with the phosphatidyl inosital pathway?
Gq protein
What does the Gq alpha activate?
Phospholipase C beta
What does activated phospholipase C do?
Hydrolyze PIP2 and release it from membrane.
What is the end product (second messengers) from the hydrolysis of PIP2?

What does DAG do?
Activate Protein Kinase C

with the help of calcium
What does IP3 do?
Release Calcium from ER
Describe the rate of release of calcium from the ER by IP3.
What are two ways to terminate the calcium response.
1. IP3 is rapidly dephosphorylated and inactivated (short half life)

2. Cytosolic calcium is quickly pumped out.
What happens to IP3's that are not dephosphorylated?
They become IP4 and promote refilling the stores for intracellular calcium
What is the role of PKC (Protein Kinase C)?
Activate TF for genes involved in proliferation
Where does Phorbol Esters come from?
Derived from croton oil
What does phorbol esters do?
Carcinogenic molecule that activates PKC by mimicing DAG.
Too much croton oil does what?
Immediate vomiting followed by griping pain leading to fatality.
What is the medicinal use of croton oil.
Can empty the bowels in 1 hour.
What is an example of PKC inhibitor in metabolism?
Why is calcium used in many signaling pathways?
1. Rapid response
2. Can induce large conformational changes
3. Suited to bind strongly to irregular shaped crevices
What kind of proteins bind to calcium?
Proteins with EF hand motifs ... e.g.-calmodulin
How many binding sites (EF motifs) for calcium is there for calmodulin?
How is calmodulin activated? what conditions?
By the binding of 3 or 4 calciums.

Usually when cytosolic calcium levels are above 50 nM
T/F - Calmodulin is an enzyme.
What is the function of calmodulin?
To serve as a component of an enzyme complex
Give an example of a calmodulin dependent kinase.
CaM kinases play a role in what human activity?
Memory and learning
What activates CaM kinase?
T/F - Active CaM kinase is inactivated after calcium withdrawal.
False - it can remain active after calcium withdrawal
When Ca2+ signal dies out, calmodulin dissociates from CaM kinase, but it is still active. Why?
Because it converts to calcium independent form
While paritally inactive (calmodulin removed), what completely inactivates CaM Kinase?
Protein Phosphatase
Two ways that cAMP and Ca2+ pathways interact?
1. Share downstream targets

2. Some forms of cAMP phosphodiesterase and adenylyl cyclase is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin
What is the only protein phosphatase that is under the control of calmodulin?
What does calcineurin do?
Regulator of NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells)
What are the three steps in NFAT activation?
1. Dephosphorylation
2. Nuclear Translocation
3. Affinity Increase for DNA
T/F - Phosphorylated NFAT is active.
False - it is inactive