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55 Cards in this Set

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What does albumin do?
Serum albumin aids in the transport of water insoluble molecules in the blood.
Where is albumin made?
Liver
How do you coagulate albumin from blood?
Heat
What do lipoproteins do?
Aid in transport of Phospholipids, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides.
Where are lipoproteins made?
In the liver and intestines.
What would you expect to see in the core of the lipoprotein?
Nonpolar lipids (e.g. - triglycerides and cholesteryl esters)
What would you expect to see in the surface MONOLAYER of the lipoprotein?
Polar lipids (e.g. - phosphoplipids, FREE cholesterol) and apolipoproteins
What is the protein component of a lipoprotein called and describe its orientation in the lipoprotein.
Apolipoprotein.

Wraps around ball of fat.
What are the faces of the apoprotein and what do they face?
Nonpolar face - faces the interior side of the lipoprotein complex

Polar face - faces the plasma
How do apoproteins serve the association of lipoprotiens and cellular lipoprotein receptor?
They serve as ligands to the receptor
Apoproteins can also do what with some enzymes?
Can activate enzymes involved in lipid metabolism/transfer.
What are chylomicrons?
Lipoproteins made by the intestines that helps transport exogenous lipids.
What are the classification of lipoproteins?
Chylomicron
VLDL - Very Low Density Lipoprotien
IDL - Intermediate Density Lipoprotein
LDL - Low Density Lipoprotein
HDL - High Density Lipoprotein
Lipoproteins are proportional to what?
Inversely proportional to diameter. Thus HDL has less lipids than VLDL. Chylomicrons have the most lipids to them.
Which lipoproteins are considered alpha (or A) lipoproteins?
Chylomicron and HDL
Which lipoproteins are considered beta (or B) lipoproteins?
LDL, IDL, VLDL
Which lipoprotein is important for transporting exogenous lipids?
Chylomicrons
Which lipoprotein is important for transporting endogenous lipids?
LDL, IDL, and VLDL
What is the function of HDL?
1. Recycles cholesterol back to liver
2. Supplies Apo C-II proteins to lipoproteins
3. Supplies Apo E proteins to lipoproteins
Rank the lipoproteins in decreasing triglyceride:cholesterol ratio.
1. Chylomicrons (highest ratio)
2. VLDL
3. IDL
4. LDL
5. HDL (smallest ratio)
Rank lipoproteins based on decreasing protein:lipid ratio.
1. HDL (highest ratio)
2. LDL
3. IDL
4. VLDL
5. Chylomicrons
Rank the lipoproteins based on decreasing density.
1. HDL (highest ratio)
2. LDL
3. IDL
4. VLDL
5. Chylomicrons
Exogenous lipids found in the vascular system come from where?
Intestines
Endogenous lipids found in the vascular system come from where?
Liver
What are the three functions of apoproteins in lipoproteins?
1. Structual integrity
2. Mediate cellular uptake
3. Plasma Enzyme activators for lipid metabolism
Lipoproteins are delivered to the vascular system by what process?
Exocytosis
A chylomicron is composed of what?
1. B-48 Apoprotein
2. Phospholipids
3. Cholesterol
4. Triglycerides
A VLDL is composed of what?
1. B-100 Apoprotein
2. Phopholipids
3. Cholesterol
4. Triglycerides
Nascent lipoproteins acquire what from HDL?
1. CII Apoprotein (regulatory subunits)
2. E Apoprotein (regulatory subunits)
What organ takes care of remnant lipoproteins and through what mechanism?
Liver
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Delivery of fatty acid in to cells require what enzyme?
LPL - Lipoprotein Lipase
What activates LPL?
Apo C-II
LPL is secreted from where?
Muscle and adipose cells
LPL hydrolyzes what in to what?
Triglycerides into FFA and glycerol
What happens to the glycerol after LPL hydrolyzes it out of triglycerides?
Diffuses out of adipose/muscle cell where it is diffused to the liver and converted to G6P
What two things must happen to a chylomicron to become a chylomicron remnant?
1. LPL hydrolyzes the fat out of it.
2. Apo C-II and Apo E are returned to HDL
How does Apo C II serve chylomicrons?
They inhibit uptake by liver cells. Thus chylomicrons with lots of Apo C are rich with triglycerides.
Chylomicron remnant receptors are also known as what?
LRP (LDL-related Receptor Proteins)
What genes are responsible for making B-100 and B-52?
The same damn one, but in order to make B-52, additional mRNA editing is done to create an early stop codon.
What is the Triglyceride:Cholesterol ratio in cylomicrons?
10:1
What is the Triglyceride:Cholesterol ratio in cylomicrons remnants?
1:1
What is the Triglyceride:Cholesterol ratio in VLDL?
5:1
What is the Triglyceride:Cholesterol ratio in IDL?
1:1
What must occur for VLDL to become IDL?
1. Release of triglycerides via LPL.
2. Apo C-II and Apo E are returned to HDL
What is the Triglyceride:Cholesterol ratio in IDL?
1:5
What must happen for IDL to become LDL?
1. Loss of triglycerides (via LPL or hepatic triacyl glycerol lipase)
2. Transfer of Apo E to HDL
T/F - Apo C II can be found on IDL?
False, so the activity of LPL is lower in IDL than VLDL
IDL particles are disposed of how and by what?
Liver takes 2/3's of them and recycles them into LDL.
Most of the cholesterol in the blood is found as what form of lipoprotein?
LDL
Apo E is crucial for what two things?
1. Removal of IDL's
2. Conversion of IDL's to LDL's.
LDL receptors recognize what protein ligands on LDL's?
Apo B-100
Apo E
What are the slowest lipoproteins to be cleared from plasma and why?
IDL and LDL (slowest) due to low amounts of Apo E
What is the benefit of slow clearance?
Allows access to various tissues because in blood longer.
When a cell needs cholesterol, what happens to the synthesis of LDL receptors?
Becomes unregulated
Which lipoproteins are taken up by the liver for recycling via LDL receptors?
IDL and LDL