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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General derivatives of the ectoderm germ layer. (X 2)
Skin and Nervous system
General derivatives of the mesoderm germ layer (x 2)
Somatic and splanchnic mesoderm (synonymous with visceral and organ system)
General derivatives of the endoderm (x2)
Tubular system going down RESPIRATORY and GI TRACT
BMP-4 induces the formation of what in ectoderm germ cells?
BMP-4 induces the formation of what in mesodermal germ cells? (x2)
Intermediate and Lateral plate mesoderms.
What molecules inhibit the BMP-4 molecule.
Noggin, chordin, and follistatin.
Where do noggin, chordin, and follistatin exist in?
Notochord, primitive node (organizer) and prechordal mesoderm.
Give an example of what neural crest cells become?
Dorsal root ganglia
What molecule is important for cephalic region of development?
What is needed for the creation of hindbrain and spinal cord? X 3
1. Wnt-3a
2. FGF
3. Retinoic Acid (Vitamin A)
What is the end result derived from neural tube? X 3
1. Brain
2. Spinal cord
3. PNS neurons
Where does all the smooth muscles come from?
SM in the face comes from ectoderm. The rest come from mesoderm
What are the three layers of the embryonic mesoderm layer?
1. Paraxial
2. Intermediate
3. Lateral Plate
Somitomeres first appear where?
In the cephalic region
Above the head, somitomeres are called what?
Below the head, somitomeres are called what?
Somites differentiate into what three types of tissue?
1. Sclerotome
2. Dermomyotome
3. Myotome
What does sclerotome become?
Vertebral column
What does myotomes become?
Dorsal and Ventral musculature
What does dermomyotome become?
Dermis and muscles of body wall.
What factor helps the sclerotome cells regulate bone development in body and where does it come from?
Sonic Hedge Hog (SHH) from the notochord.
How does BMP-4 effect mesoderm dermomyotome?
Influences it with the help of Wnt
Intermediate mesoderm forms what?
Urogenital regions
Lateral plate mesoderm forms what? X 3
Parietal and visceral layers along with Smooth muscle.
Association of lateral plate with amnion.
Amnion pinches off the yolk sac forming the gut tube.
Define vasculargenesis
Formation of initial and isolated "blood islands" (hemangioblasts) in the embryo.
Define angiogenesis
Sprouting of "blood islands" (hemangioblasts) that form more peripheral vasculature.
What are hemangioblasts?
Mesenchyme cells originating from the mesoderm which are precursors to blood cells.
What happens to "blood islands" depending on region.
Central cells become the precursor of blood cells (primitive blood cells), while peripheral cells flatten and become endothelial cells (vessels)
What eventually happens to the primitive blood cells?
They undergo apoptosis and are replaced by fetal cells from the yolk.
What colonizes the liver?
Fetal cells from the yolk.
What is the liver's function in an unborn embryo?
Major hematopoeitic organ of the fetus.
What is the factor molecule responsible for primitive blood vessel (epithelialization) and blood cell (centralization) formation?
VEGF (Vasculature Endothelial Growth Factor)
What is the vein specific gene?
What makes the foreign body sperm interact?
Placenta has limited lymphatic supply.
Angiogenesis in under the influence of what two molecules?
TFG(beta) and PDGF
VEGF is produced by what?
Mesenchyme cells
The foregut is temporarily bounded by what membrane?
Buccopharyngeal membrane.
The hindgut is temporarily bounded by what membrane?
Cloacal membrane.
The endoderm's Allantois eventually becomes what?
The spleen comes from what germ layer?
The GI organs (minus the spleen) come from what germ layer?
How does endoderm contribute to the GI?
Epithelial lining
How does mesoderm contribute to the GI?
Smooth muscle
Visceral peritoneum
How does ectoderm contribute to the GI?
Neural crest cells give rise to sympathetic ganglia (enteric neurons)