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29 Cards in this Set

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Net weight percentage of glycogen in Liver.
6-8 %
Net weight percentage of glycogen in muscle.
1-2 %
Type of glycogen particle seen in muscle
Beta particle
Type of glycogen particle seen in liver
Alpha particle which appear as rosettes beta particles
How much glycogenin per particle in liver and muscle?
One each in both.
How does glycogen play a role in the liver? What about during fasting?
To maintain blood glucose levels. Releases glucose during fasting to supply tissues.
How does glycogen play a role in muscle? What happens to the glycogen in muscle?
Lowers blood glucose levels after feeding. Glucose never leaves muscles.
What are the two major enzymes involved in glycogen degradation?
1.) Glycogen phosphorylase
2.) Glycogen debranching enzyme.
What does glycogen phosphorylase do? What is the residue molecule?
Phosphoyrlates (cleaves) at the NON-reducing end of the 1-4 linkage, releasing a residue of glucose 1 phosphate
When does glycogen phosphorylase stop? What takes over afterwards?
When there is four residues at the branchpoint. Afterwards, glycogen debranching enzyme takes over.
What is the molecule called after complete digestion by glycogen phosphorylase?
Limit dextrins
What are the two enzyme activities associated with glycogen debranching enzyme on the same polypeptide?
1.) 1,4 -> 1,4 glucan transferase.
2.) 1,6 glucosidase
1.) Alpha 1-4 -> 1-4 transferase activity transfers three residue branch to another chain.
2.) Glucosidase activity via hydrolysis
3.) Water
4.) Glucose
Glycogen debranching enzyme activity
How many isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are there?
2
How many isozymes of glycogen debranching enzyme are there.
None. Only one type exists
How many isoforms exist for glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen debranching enzyme?
Glycogen phosphorylase: many

Glycogen debranching enzyme: none is known
What does the variance is glycogen storage disease suggest?
Although only one is known, there are probably multiple isoforms of glycogen debranching enzymes.
In muscle, what does it produce for entry into glycolysis?
glucose 6 phosphate
What is the role of glucose 6 phosphatase?
Converts glucose 6 phosphate to glucose?
Where is glucose 6 phosphatase found?
In ER membrane
Glucose transport
answers
What does phosphoglucomutase do?
Convert glucose 1 phosphate to glucose 6 phosphate
What are the allosteric regulators of glycogen phosphorylase?
Activator: AMP

Inhibitor: ATP, glucose, glucose 6 P
What enzyme activates glycogen phosphorylase?
The b form of phosphoryase kinase.
How does phosphorylase kinase become activated?
Protein kinase phosphorylates the alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase to activate it.
How is protein kinase activated?
cAMP
What is the delta subunit of prosphorylase kinase?
calmodulin
How does calcium affect glycogen?
Ca increase will bind to calmodulin, thus activating it (whether alpha or beta activated or not).
How can you maximize the activity of phosphorylase kinase?
Phosphorylating alpha and beta by Protein kinase
AND
calcium binding to calmodulin (delta subunit)