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12 Cards in this Set

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Power Vacuum leading up to M. 'Ali's rise to power
Mamluks (defacto rulers) were weakened by Napoleon, who defeated them in 1798. French and British withdraw in 1801-1803. Political Anarchy Takes hold.
M. 'Ali's consolidation of power (1805ish)
-Nominated governor in 1805.
-Mamluks (tax farmers) were removed, state officials.
-Controlled 'ulama by establishing directory of Waqf
M. Ali created a new clan of landowners....
Offered them a track of state land 1st in usufruct then in perpetuity then as freehold. Loyal land owners who had state land given to them.
M. 'Ali's agricultural reforms
Developed irrigation projects.
-Damn and canals
-INK SOLUTION--new Euro style Cotton
Why did Industrialization fail (Euro style)
-Lack of local skills/industrial culture
-Shortage of int/ext societies
-Euro competition in ME (Brit-Ottoman Commercial treaty)
British Ottoman Commercial Treaty
Led to M. Ali's demise. Free trade/less monopolies. Muhammad 'Ali couldn't industrialize. External customs very high 12%, compared to internal. With Ottomans---they had control of Egypt?
Saint Simon's influence on M. Ali
Claude de Saint Simon was founder of French Socialism. Utopian Socialism and technological adventure. M. 'Ali was an enlightened despot who wanted to to experiment w/ideal society in Egypt.
Ferdinand de Lesseps
Constructed Suez Canal in 1869, was a St. Simonian.
Egyptian dependence on foreign loans...
St. Simonians laid the foundation, foreign debts. Resulted in foreign occupation of Egypt - 1882.
M. Ali's Substantive economy
Wanted an unlimited economy, cotton and faciliting world economy through the Suez Canal.
M. 'Ali's vision w/economic reform
Wanted to create a modern army, consolidate dynasty. Whole economic reform was not for betterment fof people. Wanted to establish creation of an empire in the dynasty.
M. 'Ali's Army modernization
-got rid of old/factional troops in Arabia and Sudan
-Recruited for new European stule army (1st from Sudan) Nizami Jedid (New order--mil groups).
-Estab. technical schools and hospitals/student missions to Europe