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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Immunoglobulins that attach to mast cells and basophils and are involved in allergic reactions are...
cells that help regulate the immune response are______cells.
helper T cells
Suppressor T cells act to...
depress the responses of other t cells and B cells
NK cells are actively involved in immunological surveillance. TRUE/FALSE
Stem cells that will form T cells are modified in the...
Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may play a role in regulation of the humoral immune response are....
Immunoglobulins that are composed of 5 single molecules joined together, and are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are...
IgA are primarily found in glandular secretions. TRUE/FALSE
List 3 potential results that can occur with the binding of an antigen to an antibody.
1. neutralization of the antigen
2. agglutination or precipitation
3. complement activation and opsonization
In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must...
bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane
The role of accessory cells in immunity is to...
digest foriegn cells and molecules and present antigens.
List 4 characteristics of 'human leukocyte antigen".
1. allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foriegn cells
2. bind antigenic material, when present for presentation to lymphocytes
3. can be divided into 2 major classes
4. are found on all human cells
When an antigen is bound to a class 1 HLA molecule, it can stimulate a _____cell.
cytotoxic T cell
Class 11 HLA molecules are found only attached to...
lymphocytes and macrophages
When an antigen is bound to a class 11 HLA molecule, it can stimulate a _____cell.
helper T cell
B cells are primarily activated by the activities of...
helper T cells
List 4 functions of helper T cells.
1. promote B cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production
2. stimulate T cell divisions that produce memory T cells and accelerate maturation of cytotoxic T cells
3. attract and stimulate the activity of NK cells
4. enhance nonspecific defenses
List the basic order of the cell mediated immune response.
1. antigen is engulfed and presented by a macrophage
2. undifferentiated T cells with specific receptors recognize the antigen
3. several cycles of mitosis occur
4. T cells differentiate into cytotoxic T cells and T memory cells
5. cytotoxic T cells migrate to focus of infection
6. cytotoxic T cells release perforin and or lymphotoxin.
List 4 actions of a primary humoral response to antigens.
1. B cells may differentiate into plasma cells immediately
2. B cells may undergo several rounds of mitosis before producing plasma cells and memory cells
3. antibody levels do not peak until 1-2 weeks after the initial exposure
4. the first immunoglobulins to appear in circulation are the IgM type.
List 4 factors of the secondary or anamnestic response of humoral immunity.
1. involves memory b cells
2. results in elevated titers of antibodies sooner than in the primary response
3. generally prevents a person from showing symptoms of the disease
4. can occur even if the 2nd exposure occurs years after the initial exposure.
List the stages of a bacterial infection.
1. neutrophils and NK cells migrate into the infected area
2. inflammation, lymphokines, and monokines attract phagocytes
3. cytotoxic T cells appear
4. b cells differentiate and the number of plasma cells increases
5. a gradual sustained increase in antibodies occurs
List 4 hormones of the immune system.
1. interleukins
2. interferons
3. natriuretic factor
4. chemicals that regulate phagocytes
List 4 functions of interleukins.
1. increase T cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes.
2. stimulate B cell activity, plasam cell formation and antibody production
3. stimulate inflammation
4. elevate body temperature
The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are...
Autoantibodies function against the bodys normal antigens. TRUE/FALSE
Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with...
blood vessels
What forms the right lymphatic duct?
1. the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
2. the left jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
Dividing lymphocytes can be found in the_______ or central zone of the lymphoid nodule.
Lymph nodes range in diameter from...
1mm to 25mm
Lymphatic vessels are located in almost all portions of the body, except,
If you are taking care of a female patient with a damaged spleen, you would expect to see that...
she is anemic as her body has difficulty storing iron
Specific defenses depend on the activities of...
Plasma contains______ special complement proteins that form the complement system.
11 complement proteins
The thoracic duct originates from an expanded chamber called the________
cysterna chyli
Fixed macrophages are phagocytic cells that are permanent residents of specific tissues and organs. TRUE/FALSE
_______ are fixed macrophages that are found in the CNS.
______ are fixed macrophages found in the liver.
Kuppfer cells
_____ are fixed macrophages located in the epithelia of the skin
Langerhans cells
_______ are free macrophages found in the lungs.
alveolar macrophages
The ability of certain phagocytes to move through the wall of a capillary is called_______
_______ are antibodies that make it easier for phagocytes to engulf their target cells.
The complement factor_______ can sustain and enhance the alternative pathway of complement fixation.
The portions of an antigen that are recognized by an antibody are the______
antigenic determinant sites
Antigens with only one antigenic site are called...
partial antigens or haptens
When large numbers of antibodies encounter their antigenic targets, they interact to form a three dimensional structure known as ....
immune complex
The process by which soluble antigens combine with antibodies to form insoluble immune complexes is called...
Interleukins are hormones that regulate the activity of B and T cells and enhance nonspecific def. TRUE/FALSE
if the thymus failed to produce the hormone thymosin, we would expect to see a decrease in the number of...
cytotoxic T cells
Milly has just received a kidney transplant, and is taking cyclosporin A. What does this medication do?
suppresses cytotoxic T cells, thus preventing rejection
A fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA type antibody. This fluid is probably....
Injections of interleukin 11 will cause an increase if T cells. TRUE/FALSE