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118 Cards in this Set

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Lymph
Fluid in tissue spaces
Lymph
Carries protein molecules and other substances back to the blood
Functions of Lymphatic System
Allows exchange of substances, i.e excess fluid and protein molecules that cannot occur in capillary beds
Functions of Lymphatic System
Filters out harmful substances from the lymph before returning to the blood
Functions of Lymphatic System
Acts as sewer system of the body
Lymphatic Vessels
One-way only movement of lymph through lymphatic vessel capillaries
Lymphatic Vessel Capillaries
Tiny blind-ended tubes distributed in tissue spaces
Lymphatic Vessel Capillaries
Microscopic in size, , poor "
Lymphatic Vessel Capillaries
Sheet consisting of one cell layer of simple squamous epithelium
Lymphatic Vessel Capillaries
Poor "fit" between adjacent cells results in porous walls
Lymphatic Vessel Capillaries
Called "lacteals" in the intestinal wall (for fat transportation)
Vascular System
Is like the Lymph System
Intercellular Spaces
Between Cells
Tail of Spence
Extension of breast tissue into underarm (lots of nodes/high cancer area)
Lymph
Low pressure
High Pressure
Arteriole (from heart), blood capillary, and venule (toward heart)
Right Lymphatic Duct
Drains lymph from the right upper extremity and right side of the head, neck, and upper torso
Thoracic Duct
Largest lymphatic vessel
Cisterna Chyli (Thoracic Duct)
An enlarged pouch along the course of the lymphatic vessels in the abdomen
Thoraic Duct
Drains lymph from about three quarters of the body
Thoracic Duct
Left subclavian vein
Right Lymphatic Duct
Right subclavian vein
Lymph Nodes
Filter lymph; located in clusters along the pathways of lymphatic vessels
Lymph Nodes
Functions include defense and WBC formation
Flow of Lymph
To node via several afferent lymph vessels
Flow of Lymph
From node by a single efferent lymph vessel
Flow of Lymph
Like a train station- several arrive, 1 leaves
Valves
No backflow
Redness/Swelling
High concentration of red blood cells (infected)
Swelling/Soreness
WBCs (monocytes, neutrophils are eating/fighting cells)
Thymus
Lymphoid tissue organ located in mediastinum
Thymus
Total weight of 35 to 40 g; little more than an ounce
Thymus
Plays a vital and central role in immunity
Thymus
Produces T lymphocytes, or T cells
Thymus
Secretes hormones called thymosins
Thymus
In adults, lymphoid tissue is largely replaced by fat and connective tissue in the process called involution
Aids
T4 below 200 = full blown aids
Tonsils
Composed of three masses of lymphoid tissue around the openings of the mouth and throat
Palatine Tonsils
The tonsils (2)
Pharyngeal Tonsils
Adenoids (remove for snoring)
Lingual tonsils
Behind tongue; vascular
Tonsils
Subject to chronic infection
Tonsils
Enlargement of pharyngeal tonsils may impair breathing
Spleen
Largest lymphoid organ in body
Spleen
Located in upper left quadrant of abdomen
Spleen
Often injured by trauma to abdomen
Spleen
Surgical removal called splenectomy
Spleen
Functions include phagocytosis of bacteria and old RBCs; acts as a blood reservoir
Functions of the Immune System
Protects the body from pathologic bacteria, foreign tissue cells, and cancerous cells
Immune System
Made up of specialized cells and molecules
Nonspecific Immunity
Skin, tears and mucus, inflammation
Skin
Mechanical barrier to bacteria and other harmful agents
Tears and mucus
Wash eyes and trap and kill bacteria
Inflammation
Attracts immune cells to site of injury, increases local blood flow, increases vascular permeability
Inflammation
Promotes movement of WBCs to site of injury or infection
Inflammatory Response
Inflammation is a generalized response to an invader such as bacteria that are causing tissue damage
Inflammatory Response
This triggers release of factors from immune cells
Inflammatory Response
The presence of immune factors attracts WBCs
Inflammatory Response
Factors also cause increased blood flow (site becomes warm and reddened) and increased vascular permeability (site swells with associated discomfort)
Inflammatory Response
These immune factor-mediated changes help phagocytic WBCs reach the site and enter the affected tissue
Pus
WBCs and phagocytized cells being kicked out
Specific Immunity
Ability of body to recognize, respond to, and remember harmful substances or bacteria
Inherited or Inborn Immunity
Inherited immunity to certain diseases from birth
Acquired Immunity (Not Immunization)
Natural immunity occurs when exposure to causative agent is not deliberate
Active Immunity (Natural)
Active disease produces immunity
Passive Immunity (Natural)
Immunity passes from mother to fetus through placenta or from mother to child through mother's milk
Acquired Immunity
Artificial immunity occurs when exposure to causative agent is deliberate
Active Immunity (Artificial)
Vaccination results in immunity
Passive Immunity (Artificial)
Protective material developed in another individual's immune system and given to previously non-immune individual
Antibodies (Immune System Molecules)
Protein compounds with specific combining sites
Humoral or Antibody-Mediated Immunity
Immunity conferred by the action of antibodies
Antigen-Antibody complexes have various modes of action
Neutralize toxins, clump or agglutinate enemy cells, promote phagocytosis
Agglutinate
Clump
Phagocytosis
Cell eating
Complement Proteins
Group of at least 14 proteins normally present in blood in an inactive state
Complement Fixation
Important mechanism of action for antibodies
Complement Fixation
Causes cell lysis by permitting entry of water through a defect created in the plasma membrane
Phagocytes
Ingest and destroy foreign cells or other harmful substances via phagocytosis
Types of Phagocytes
Neutrophils, Monocytes, Macrophages
Two types of Macrophages
Kupffer's cells, Dust cells
Lymphocytes
Most numerous of immune system cells
Development of B cells
Primitive stem cells migrate from red bone marrow and go through two stages of development
Development of B cells (stage 1)
Stem cells develop into immature B cells
Development of B Cells
Immature B cells are small lymphocytes; each synthesizes highly specific antibody molecules in their plasma membranes
B Cells
Migrate via the bloodstream chiefly to lymph nodes
B cells
Become seed cells in the lymph nodes
B Cells
Undergo mitosis to make clones of themselves containing their specific antibody
Development of B Cells (stage 2)
Immature B cell develops into activated B cell if it comes in contact with its specific antigen
B cell (stage 2)
Is activated by antigens binding to its surface antibodies
Activated B cell (stage 2)
Divides repeatedly, forming two clones of cells: plasma cells, memory cells
Function of B Cells (Humoral Immunity)
Because of circulating antibodies
Humoral Immunity
Activated B cells develop into plasma cells
Humoral Immunity
Plasma cells secrete antibodies into the blood
Humoral Immunity
Circulating antibodies produce humoral immunity
Development of T Cells (stage 1)
Stem cells from bone marrow migrate to thymus gland
T Cells (stage 1)
Stem cells develop into T cells several months before and after birth
T Cells (stage 1)
T cells have protein molecules on their cytoplasmic membrane shaped to bind to only one kind of antigen
T Cells (stage 1)
T cells migrate from thymus chiefly to lymph nodes, liver, and spleen
T Cells (stage 2)
Occurs only if a specific antigen binds to T cells' surface proteins
T Cells (stage 2)
T cells develop into sensitized T cells
B
Humoral
T
Cell
Function of T Cells
Provide cell-mediated immunity
Function of T Cells
Kill invading cells directly by releasing a substance that poisons cells
Function of T Cells
Release chemicals that attract and activate macrophages to kill cells by phagocytosis
Sensitized T cell
Secretes near invading cells
Cell Poison
Kills invading cell bound to sensitized T cell
Cell Poison
Compounds that act directly
Attracting Factor
Compounds that act indirectly
Attracting Factor
Attracts macrophages to vicinity of invading cells
Macrophage-activating Factor
Accelerates phagocytosis by macrophages
Attracting Factor and Macrophage-activating Factor
Promote Phagocytosis
Humoral Immunity
Immunity conferred by the action of antibodies
Humoral
Antibodies
Humoral Immunity
Activated B cells - plasma cells and memory cells
Cell-mediated Immunity
Immunity conferred by the action of cells
Cell-mediated Immunity
Sensitized T cells
Cell-mediated Immunity
Kill invading cells directly by releasing lymphotoxin or releasing lymphokines that attract and activate macrophages to kill cells by phagocytosis