Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What membrane covers the lungs?
visceral pleura
What membrane lines ribcage & covers upper surface of diaphragm?
parietal pleura
What is the space between the visceral and parietal membrane?
pleural cavity
What fissures are found in the right lung?
oblique and horizontal
What fissures are found in the left lung?
oblique fissure
Blood vessels & airways enter lungs at the _________.
Bronchi, vessels and nerves constitute the __________. It is covered by what?
root; pleura
The respiratory bronchioles are composed of what kind of epithelium?
simple squamous
Respiratory ducts subdivide into what?
alveolar ducts
What is an alveolar sac?
it is two or more alevoli sharing a common opening
What type of alveoli has simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs?
Type I alveolar cells
What alveoli has free surface and microvilli that secrete alveolar fluid containing surfactant?
Type II alveolar cells (septal cells)
What cells are wandering macrophages remove debris?
Alveolar dust cells
What layer of the respiratory membrane consists of type I and II cells?
alveolar wall
What layer of the respiratory membrane underlies the alveolar wall?
epithelial basement membrane
What layer of the respiratory membrane is often fused to the epitheliam basement membrane?
capillary basement membrane
What layer of the respiratory membrane consists of the capillary?
endothelial cells
What is the surface area of the capillary membrane?
In response to low O2 levels, what happens to pulmonary blood vessels?
They constrict
When can air move inside the lungs?
When the pressure inside the lungs is less than the atmosphere.
When does air move out of the lungs?
When the pressure inside the lungs is greater than the atmosphere
How do you accomplish exhalation?
By decreasing the volume, the pressure increases.
What muscles are used in quiet inspiration, and what happens to the pressure?
External and internal intercostals; the pressure decreases
In forced, labored inspiration, what muscles are used and what happens to the pressure?
sternocleidomastoid, scalenes & pectoralis minor; pressure increases
What are the general functions of hormones?
extracellular fluid
biological clock
contraction of cardiac & smooth muscle
glandular secretion
some immune functions
What differentiates exocrine from endocrine glands?
Exocrine glands secrete into ducts, whereas endocrine glands secrete into the bloodstream
What local hormone acts on neighboring cells?
What local hormones act on the same cells that secrete them?
Where and what occurs during positive feedback?
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions
Uterine contractions cause pressure on cervix
Pressure on cervix stimulates oxytocin release (repeat)
What are the master endocrine glands?
hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Where does the hypothalamus receive input?
cortex, thalamus, limbic system & internal organs
Where is the pituitary gland found?
in sella turcica of sphenoid
What lobe constitutes the larger part of the pituitary gland?
What lobe of the pituitary gland constitutes the smaller?
posterior lobe at 25%
Which lobe are special neuroglial cells called pituicytes found?