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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : pathophysiology mechanism?
activation and thus autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : Causes? (good mnemonic)
Get Smashed (EtOH will can lead to AP) = 1) Gallstones 2) EtOH 3) Trauma 4) Steroids 5) Mumps 6) autoimmune disease 7) scorpion sting of all things! 8) hyperlipidemia 9) drugs
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : clinically presents with?
intense epigastric pain radiating to back
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : labs(name 2): which of the two has a higher specificity?
↑ amylase + ↑lipase (higher specificity) "li is hi"
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : Name 5 nasty complications that can result from AP?
1) DIC 2) ARDS 3) diffuse fat necrosis 4) hypocalcemia 5) pseudocyst formation
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : if you have CHRONIC pancreatitis: what do we think of your life habits?
Chronic Pancr. Is strongly associated w/ alcoholism
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : 0
Acute pancreatitis: this is what our US attorney general had. : Pancreatic cancer
what is a common and fatal pancreatic cancer?
pancreatic adenocarcinoma
pancreatic adenocarcinoma : what is the prognosis?
6 months: very aggressive: usually has mets when pt. presents
pancreatic adenocarcinoma: where are tumors most commonly located? And what does this lead to?
pancreatic head → obstructive jaundice.
COPD = also known as OLD: obstructive lung disease: why is it called obstructive?
obstruction of AIR FLOW → air trapping in lungs
COPD = also known as OLD: obstructive lung disease: what is the major PFT finding?
FEV1 / FVC ration is ↓ (hallmark finding)
COPD = also known as OLD: obstructive lung disease: name the 4 types of COPD
1) Chronic Bronchitis (Blue Bloater) 2) emphysema (pink puffer) 3) asthma 4) bronchietasis
COPD = also known as OLD: obstructive lung disease: what is the definition of Chronic Bronchitis
productive cough for >3 consecutive months in two or more years.
COPD = also known as OLD: obstructive lung disease: what do you expect on lung histology?
hypertrophy of mucus-secreting glands in the bronchioles (Reid index of >50%)
COPD = also known as OLD: obstructive lung disease: leading cause is smoking: what are the physical findings for Chronic Bronchitis? (name 3)
1)cyanosis 2) wheezing 3) crackles
what is the pathophysiological mechanism of EMPHYSEMA?
destruction of fibrous septa/alveolar walls → enlargement of air space and ↓ total surface area for gas exchange
if the cause is smoking, what kind of emphysema would you see on histo slide?
centri-acinar emphysema
what else can cause emphysema: (also may work synergistically with smoking): What kind of findings do you see in lung histo and name another organ affected?
alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency → panacinar emphysema + liver cirrhosis
what causes the emphysema in this disorder?
↑ elastase activity to damage lung tissue.
name 4 findings of emphysema (in general)
1) dyspnea; 2) ↓ breath sounds 3) tachycardia 4) ↓ I/E ratio
What is mechanism of asthma
BRONCHIAL hypersensitivity/hyperresponsiveness → REVERSIBLE bronchoconstriction
name 3 common asthma triggers
1) viral URI 2) allergens 3) stress!!
name 7 asthma findings
1) cough 2) wheezing 3) dyspnea 4) hypoxemia 5)↓ I/E ratio 6) tachypnea 7) pulsus paradoxus
BRONCHIECTASIS: what is its mechanism??
chronic necrotizing infection of BRONCHI → dilated airways, purulent sputum, recurrent infections, hemoptysis (see Robbins for a good discussion of this)
what disorders is bronchietasis commonly associated with?
1) bronchial obstruction 2) cystic fibrosis 3) poor ciliary motility
What are classic PFT findings for RLD?
↓ VC ↓TLC ; FEV1/FVC ration > 80%
Name the two MAJOR types of RLD
1) poor breathing mechanics (EXTRA-pulmonary) 2) Interstitial lung diseases
Name 3 lung volumes that are increased in COPD
What 2 values are BOTH reduced in COPD and RLD?
1) FEV1 and 2) FVC (think FEV1/FVC ratio) NOTE! in COPD, FEV1 is more dramatically reduced and thus the FEV1/FVC ratio is ↓
what is the main pathology resulting from asbestosis?
DIFFUSE, interstitial fibrosis caused by inhaled asbestos Fibers.
What cancers are increased in pts with asbestosis?
1) pleural mesothelioma 2) bronchogenic carcinoma (BC)
Major finding in lung w/ asbestosis?
Ferruginous bodies: asbestos fibers coated with hemosiderin also 2) ivory white pleural plaques
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: What is the main cause
surfactant deficiency --> to increased surface tension --> alveolar collapse
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: surfactant is made by which cells? After when?
type 2 pneumocytes after 35th gestational week
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: what do you measure? Where do you get this fluid?
lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio in the amniotic fluid = measure of lung maturation <1.5 in neonatal distress syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: what is surfactant made of (chemical name)
dipalmitoyl phosph-tidyl-choline (DP-PTC)
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: treatment for poor maturation of lungs
1) before birth = maternal steroids 2) after= artificial surfactant
Karta-gener's syndrome: what is this?
immotile cilia due to dynein arm defect
Karta-gener's syndrome: results in what in female and male? (4 things)
1) sterility (in male sperm also immotile) 2)bronchietasis 3)recurrent sinusitis (bacteria & particles not pushed out) 4) associated with situs inversus (e.g. dextro-cardia)
name the 3 main classes of cancers that affect parts of the lung
1) bronchogenic carcinoma (with different subtypes) 2) carcinoid tumor 3) metastasis
list the 5 types of major bronchogenic carcinomas
CENTRAL 1) squamous cell ca 2)small cell ca; PERIPHERAL 3) adenocarcinoma 4) bronchoalveolar ca 5) large cell ca
mnemonic: what is meant by SPHERE of symptoms?
S= superior vena cava syndrome; P= pancoast tumor; H= Horner's syndrome; E= Endocrine (paraneoplastic); Recurrent laryngeal / hoarseness; E = Effusions (pleural OR pericardial)
What can a CARCINOID tumor cause?
Carcinoid Syndrome = flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, and salivation
Metastases to lung is very common, LUNG cancer also prone to metastasize to what other parts?
1) brain (epilepsy) 2) bone (fracture) 3)liver (jaundice + hepatomegaly)
What is Pancoast's tumor?
it's a carcinoma of the apex of lung
what may Pancoast's tumor affect?
may affect CSP= cervical sympathetic plexus causing Horner's syndrome
what is Horner's syndrome?
P.A.M. is Horny = Ptosis, Anhydrosis, Miosis
1st AID breaks it down into TYPE/ ORGANISM/ CHARACTERISTICS = cover parts of this table and fill in the blanks