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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Mistaking a Necessary Condition for a Sufficient Condition
The argument mistakes something that is necessary to bring about a situation with something that in itself is enough to bring about that situation.
Mistaking a Necessary Condition for a Sufficient Condition
The argument mistakes a factor that is required to achieve a state of affairs for a factor that is by itself enough to achieve that state of affairs.
Mistaking a Necessary Condition for a Sufficient Condition
The argument mistakes something that is necessary for its conclusion to follow for something that ensures that the conclusion follows.
Mistaking a Necessary Condition for a Sufficient Condition
The argument fails to take into account the distinction between something not being prohibited and its being authorized.
Mistaking a Necessary Condition for a Sufficient Condition
The argument mistakes a condition required if a certain result is to obtain for a condition that by itself is sufficient to guarantee that result.
Mistaking a Necessary Condition for a Sufficient Condition
The argument treats a characteristic known to be true of one class of things as if that characteristic were unique to that class.
Mistaking a Sufficient Condition for a Necessary Condition
The argument fails to establish that a condition under which a phenomenon is said to occur is the only condition under which a phenomenon occurs.
Mistaking a Sufficient Condition for a Necessary Condition
The argument assumes that if one factor leads to a certain result, then no other factors can possibly lead to that result.
Mistaking a Sufficient Condition for a Necessary Condition
The argument presents one possible solution to a problem as the only solution to that problem.
Mistaking a Sufficient Condition for a Necessary Condition
The argument confuses being an adequate solution with being a required solution.
Circular Reasoning
The argument's conclusion is identical to one of its premises
Circular Reasoning
The argument attempts to support its conclusion solely by restating that conclusion in other words.
Circular Reasoning
The argument rephrases its conclusion without offering any support for it.
Circular Reasoning
The argument draws a conclusion that simply restates a claim given in support of that conclusion.
Circular Reasoning
The argument offers, in place of support for its conclusion, a mere restatement of that conclusion.
Circular Reasoning
The overall conclusion reached merely repeats the evidence offered.
Circular Reasoning
The argument assumes what it seeks to establish.
Circular Reasoning
The argument presupposes what it sets out to conclude.
Circular Reasoning
The argument takes for granted what it is trying to prove.
Circular Reasoning
The argument is a circular argument made up of an opening claim followed by a conclusion that merely paraphrases that claim.
Circular Reasoning
The argument attempts to justify its conclusion by citing reasons that people would find plausible only if they were already convinced the conclusion was true.
Circular Reasoning
The argument contains a premise that is implausible unless the conclusion is presumed to be true.
Circular Reasoning
The argument precludes the possibility of disconfirming evidence.
Circular Reasoning
The argument disallows in principle any evidence that would disconfirm its conclusion.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument uses a key term ambiguously.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument draws a conclusion based on equivocal language.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument unfairly exploits an ambiguity in a word by treating two different meanings of the word as if they were equivalent.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument inappropriately uses language that is vague
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument bases its conclusion on an ambiguous interpretation of a key word.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument depends upon the use of an imprecise term.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument relies on two different uses of a pivotal phrase.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument equivocates with respect to an important term.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument uses a key phrase in two different senses.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument incorrectly relies on words whose meanings are vague or imprecise.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument allows a pivotal expression to shift its meaning over the course of the argument.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument interprets an ambiguous claim in one way in one part of the argument and in another way in another part of the argument.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument fails to distinguish between two distinct senses of a key term.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument makes crucial use of a concept without defining it.
Ambiguous Word Usage
The argument involves an equivocation, in that an important word is allowed to shift its meaning during the course of the argument.
Misinterpreting a Key Term
The argument draws a conclusion based on the misinterpretation of an important term.
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
The argument proceeds by redefining a term in a way that is favorable to the argument.
Unfairly Redefining a Key Term
The argument unreasonably extends the application of a key term.