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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define sufficient condition
Event whose occurence indicates a necessary condition must also occur
Define necessary condition
Event whose occurence must occur in order for the sufficient condition to occur.
Sufficient condition indicators
if
when
whenever
every
all
any
people who
in order to
Lis the necessary condition indicators
Only
only if
then
must
required
except
until
without
unless
Solve: Only if the electorate is moral & intelligent, will a democracy function well.
DFW --> M & I
Weaken questions
1. features
- stimulus contains an argument
- focus on the conclusion
- strong prephrases
- accept the answer choices as given
2. How to attack
- attack the conclusion
- attack the conditional statement
- attack the assumption
- attack the method
3. Correct answers
- incomplete information
- improper comparison
- qualified conclusion
4. Incorrect answers
- opposite
- shell
- out of scope
Weaken conditional statements
Show that even though the sufficient condition occurs, the necessary condition does not follow
Strengthen questions
1. features
- stimulus contains an argument
- focus on the conclusion
- strong prephrase
- accept the answer choices as given
2. how to solve
- information that strengthens the argument 1 - 100%
- identify the conclusion
- personalize
- look for weakeness
3. Correct answers
- stregthen the argument 1 - 100%
4. incorrect answers
- opposite
- out of scope
- shell
How to Strengthen casuality questions
1. Eliminate alternate causes
2. show that when the cause occurs, the event occurs
3. show that when the event does not occur, the cause occurs
4. eliminate the possibility that the relationship is reversed
5. show that ht data used to make the causual statments are accurate or elimnate possible problems with the data
Justify the Conclusion questions
1. Features
- stimulus contains an argument
- focus on the conclusion
- strong prephrase
- accept the answers as given
- Uses sufficient condition in the quesiton stem
- does not lessen the degree of justification
2. how to solve
- mechanistically
- justify formula (Answer + stimulus = conclusion)
Assumption questions
1. features
- does not contain a sufficient indicator in the question
- assume, presume
- unstated premise, must come before the argument
2. how to solve
- defender
- supporter role (traditional linking of new information)
How to solve Assumption conditional questions
1. Link new information
2. necessary condition must occur in order for the sufficient condition to occur
How to solve Assumption Casuality questions
1. Eliminate other causes
2. show that when the cause occurs, the event occurs
3. show that when the event does not occur, the cause does not occur
4. eliminate the possiblity that the relationship is reversed
5. the data that supports the argument is valid
Resolve the paradox questions
1. features
- no conclusion
2. how to solve
- active resolution: allow both sides to occur
3.Correct answers
- possible cuase
- explain how the situation came into being
-add a piece of infomartion that allows both sides to co-exist
4. Incorrect answers
- explains one side
- similiarites and differences
Method of reasoning questions
1. Features
a. Contains an argument
2. How to attack
a. Fact test
b. Understand the mechanics of the argument
3. Incorrect answers
a. Half right/wrong
b. New
c. Exaggerated
d. Opposite
e. Reversed
f. Shell
Flaw in reasoning questions
1. In correct usage of terms or concept
2. Straw man
3. Circular reasoning
4. Internal contradiction
5. Errors in causality
6. Errors in conditional reasoning
7. Errors in the use of evidence
8. Lack of general evidence
9. Appeal to fallacies
10. Source argument
11. False dilemma
12. Exceptional / generalization
13. Errors in composition/division
14. Time shift
15. #/%
16. Survey errors
17. False analogy
How to attack parallel questions
a. Validity
b. Method
c. Conclusion ( intent – level of certainty)
d. Premise
Question & Number questions
Misconceptions:
1. Increasing numbers  increasing percentages
2. Decreasing numbers  decreasing percentages
3. Increasing %  increasing #
4. Decreasing %  decreasing #
5. large numbers  large percentages
Required elements to solve
1. percentage within a total
2. # within a total
3. Total
How to solve must be true questions
1. If stimulus contains percentages or proportion information only, avoid answers that contain hard number
2. If the stimulus contains only numerical information, avoid answers that contain percentage or proportion
How to solve strengthen and weaken
1. Look carefully for information about the total amounts – does the argument make an assumption based on the misconceptions
Evaluate the argument question
Feature
1. There must be a flaw in the argument
2. Accept the answer choice as given
How to solve
1. Variance test: supply two polar opposite responses to the question posed
Correct answer: if the reponse produces different effects on the conclusion (one should weaken and one should stregthen)
Cannot be true questions
Rules: accept the information in the stimulus to prove the answer choice cannot occur.
Point at issue
1. incorrect answers
- ethical vs. facutal
- dual agreement/ disagreement
- the speaker's view is unknown
2. How to solve: agree/disagree test ( the correct answer must produce repsonses wher eone speaker agrees and the other disagree)
Principles
Define: rule that specifies what action or jusgement are correct