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59 Cards in this Set

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Cell
basic structural and physiological unit of all living organisms
Cell theory
(1) cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms
(2) cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms
(3) All cells come from preexisting cells
(4) All cells are similar in chemical composition
(5) Most of the chemical reactions of life occur within cells
(6) Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division
unicellular
consisting of a single cell that carries out all the functions of life, ex/archaea, bacteria, protists
multicellular
made up of a number of cells that are specialized for different functions, ex/plants and animals
evolution
Any gradual change. Organic or Darwinian evolution, often referred to as evolution, is any genetic and resulting phenotypic change in organisms from generation to generation
natural selection
the differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same population; proposed by Charles Darwin
mutation
a detectable, heritable change in the genetic material not caused by recombination; source of variation
internal environment
the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracellular fluids of the body
species
a group of organisms that look alike (morphologically similar) and can breed successfully with one another
adaptations
structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism’s chances of survival and reproduction in its environment. Also, the evolutionary process that leads to the development or persistence of such a trait
DNA
the fundamental hereditary material of all living organisms; in eukaryotes, stores primarily in the cell nucleus; a nucleic acid using deoxyribose rather than ribose
nucleotides
basic chemical units in a nucleic acid; consists of four nitrogenous bases
genes
specific segment of DNA that contains information for making proteins
proteins
make up much of an organism’s structure and are the molecules that govern the chemical reactions within cells
population
a group of many organisms of the same species
model systems
biologists use model systems for research, knowing that they can extend their findings to other organisms and to humans
genetically related
species that share a common ancestor
fossil record
the preserved remains of organisms that lived in the distant past used to investigate the history of life; biased!
membranes
enclosure of complex biological molecules, 2nd critical step in the origin of life, kept them close together and increased the frequency with which they interacted
3.8 billion years ago
when the natural process of membrane formation resulted in the first cells with the ability to replicate themselves
prokaryotes
organisms whose genetic material is not contained within a nucleus: the bacteria and archaea; considered an earlier stage in the evolution of life than the eukaryotes
metabolism
the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on inside a cell
photosynthesis
the chemical reactions that transform the energy of sunlight into a form of energy that can power the synthesis of large biological molecules, evolution of photosynthesis occurred about 2.5 billion years ago
organelles
intracellular compartments found in or on eukaryotic cells
nucleus
an organelle that contains the cell's genetic information
eukaryotes
organisms made up of one or more complex cells in which the genetic material is contained in nuclei
chloroplast
the organelle specialized to conduct photosynthesis
cellular specialization
enabled multicellular eukaryotes to increase in size and become more efficient at gathering resources and adapting to specific environment
speciation
the process of splitting one population into 2 populations that are reproductively isolated from one another
latinized names
first name identifies species' genus, second is the name of the species
binomial nomenclature
2-part latin naming system: genus + species
genus name
1st name, group of species that share a common ancestor
species name
2nd name, name of species
evolutionary tree
shows the order in which populations split and eventually evolved into new species
30 million species
number of species of organisms that may exist on Earth today
domains of life
bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
bacteria
unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus, possessing distinctive ribosomes
archaea
unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus; posses distinctive membrane lipids
eukarya
possess internal compartment; 3 major groups: plants, animals, and fungi; evolved from protists
protists
unicellular microbial eukaryotes
autotrophs
organisms capable of photosynthesis (self-feeding)
heterotrophs
organisms that require a source of molecules synthesized by other organisms, which they then break down to obtain energy for their own metabolic processes (other-feeders)
scientific method
observations, questions, hypothesis, predictions, testing
observations
1st step
questions
2nd step
predictions
making predictions based on hypothesis; 4th step
testing
making additional observations or conducting experiments; 5th step
inductive logic
used to propose a tentative answer to the question
deductive logic
make predictions based on the hypothesis
experiment
test predictions/hypothesis
comparative experiments
predict that there will be a difference between the samples or groups based on hypothesis, test whether or not the predicted difference exists
controlled experiments
compare samples or groups, start the experiment with groups that are as similar as possible; predict on the basis of hypothesis that some variable plays a role in the phenomenon we are investigating; manipulate variable; test to see if manipulation created predicted difference between experimental and control groups
independent variable
variable that is manipulated in a controlled experiment
dependent variable
variable that is measured in a controlled experiment; depends on the independent
null hypothesis
the assertion that an effect proposed by its companion hypothesis does not in fact exist
data
quantified observations
probability of error
probability that the results can be explained by chance = 5% or lower
testable hypothesis
can be tested!
reproducible and quantifiable observations
can be repeated and quantified!