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144 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Why was Louisiana the last southern state to end Reconstruction?
Because Louisiana was the most violent state in the south.
What year did Reconstruction end in Louisiana?
1877
What did the conservative democrats, who were from the old governing class, call themselves?
“Redeemer Democrats”
What were redeemer democrats also known as?
Bourbon Democrats
_____ refers to the upper class that provided the leadership for the democrats (planters, merchants, and lawyers).
Bourbon
What were the two main issues in which the Bourbon Democrats would not accept change from?
White Supremacy and Financial and Tax Policy
What were the three variations of the Bourbon Democrats?
Reactionary Bourbons
Practical Opportunists
James Gang
None
_____ Bourbons wanted to return to the past.
Reactionary
_____ Bourbons had no principles. Wanted political power to enrich themselves.
Practical Opportunist
_____ Bourbons were a group of bribed state officials who supported the convict lease system.
James Gang
Reactionary Bourbons were led by who?
Mayor Jastremskí
Who owned one of the leading papers in New Orleans, Daily states, where he used it to publish his ideas?
Hearsey
Who lead the Practical Opportunist Bourbons?
Major Burke
Who was the state treasurer and chairman of the state democratic party and protector of the Louisiana lottery?
Major Burke
Who was the mayor of New Orleans and lt. governor of Louisiana that controlled a powerful political machine called “The Ring” to control New Orleans government?
Louis Wiltz
What kept the lottery in business and protected “The Ring” from state government interference?
Lottery/Ring Combination
Who led the group of bribed state officials who supported the convict lease system?
S.L. James
_____ Bourbons were conservatives, but not corrupt and not reactionary and moderate in their conservatism.
High Principle Bourbons
None
What governor condemned the mistreatment of blacks, was a high principle bourbon, criticized wealthy tax evaders, was against the lottery, and many of the bourbons were against him because he was too honest for Louisiana politics?
Governor Francis T. Nichols
The Constitution of _____ was set up so that most blacks lost the vote.
1898
Who was elected governor in the election of 1881, but would die after a year in office from tuberculosis?
Wiltz
Who replaced Wiltz as governor in 1881 that made the democrats look bad and the democratic party revolted against him?
Samuel McEnery
Who won the state election for governor in 1888?
Nichols
What happened to the lottery and the convict lease system in 1890?
The legislature voted to extend it.
What law did the legislature pass that required railroads to have separate cars for blacks and whites?
Separate Car Law
What senator supported the Separate Car Law?
Senator Murphy Foster
In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled that the Separate Car law was constitutional, because it provided equal facilities. This case was called what?
Plessey vs. Ferguson
What case reversed the verdict of Plessey vs. Ferguson in 1954?
Brown vs. School Board
What three things did the legislature do in 1890?
Extended the lottery
Extended the Convict Lease System
Passed the Separate Car Law
None
What was the Alliance Movement?
A new political party was established that was for the poorer people.
A new political party was established in Louisiana in 1890 called what?
The People’s Party
The People’s Party is also known as what?
The Populist Party
What party tried to combine poor whites and blacks into a biracial coalition, based on economic and political interest?
The Populist Party
What did Governor Nichols do about the Alliance Movement in Louisiana?
He tried to keep them within the democratic party.
What two things did Nichols do to keep the Alliance Movement in the democratic party?
Appointed the head of the farmer’s union to be his state secretary of agriculture
The Nichols Faction of the state democratic party formed the anti-lottery league to fight the re-charter of the lottery.
None
What happened to the lottery?
The lottery was defeated before the election of 1892 took place, the US Supreme Court ruled that US mail could not be used for the lottery.
What happened to McEnery when the lottery shut down?
His campaign was ruined because they were sponsoring him.
Louisiana was governed by a _____ (government for the benefit of the few) from the end of reconstruction (1877) until the rise of Huey Long(1828).
Conservative Oligarchy
During the 1880s, the cane fields saw Louisiana’s first experience with agricultural labor organization, which lead to the state’s bloodiest single episode of labor violence known as:
the Thibodaux Massacre of 1887
What was the national order that ambitiously desired to unite all American wage earners that pushed a strike for higher wages?
Knights of Labor
Who was the judge during the Thibodaux Massacre?
Judge Taylor Beattie
Who determined that rice would do well in Louisiana?
Seaman A. Knapp
In the fifty years between the end of Reconstruction and the election of Huey Long as governor, the only serious challenge to Louisiana’s Bourbon oligarch came in the 1890s, what was it?
The Populist party and its republican allies
_____ emerged from the supposedly nonpolitical Farmers’ Union-Alliance movement of the 1880s.
Populism (the People’s party)
None
Who was the Populist nominee for the 1892 election?
Tannehill
Who won the election of 1892?
Foster
In 1896, who was the Populist-Republican millionaire sugar planter from St. Mary Parish candidate for governor?
Pharr
In 1896, who was the Democratic party nominee for governor that won the election?
Foster
What kind of amendment did Foster propose that was lost in every parish when voted on?
An amendment that would authorize the subsequent session of the legislature to write into law any sort of voting restriction it desired, without resubmission to the voters.
What was passed during Foster’s second term in the legislature?
Several complex registration and election laws that obviously intended to reduce the voting strength of the uneducated of both races.
The legislature also refused to increase the state’s diminutive appropriation for public education.
None
What were the laws called that segregated everything?
Jim Crow laws
The 1890 “separate but equal” law of the Louisiana legislature pertaining to railroads precipitated the _____ case decision.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
What was the most brutal feature of race control?
Lynching
What was the state’s most publicized lynching bee?
Featured white victims: in 1891 a mob in downtown New Orleans, which included representatives of the city’s civic and professional elite, killed eleven Italians and precipitated an international incident.
Who was the man that would later become governor that was involved in the Italian lynching?
Parker
During the time that Louisiana became so notorious for lynching lawlessness, _____, a wealthy planter and lawyer from Lafourche Parish earned appointment to the US Supreme Court in 1894 and rose to chief justice in 1910, a position he held until his death in 1921.
Edward Douglass White
_____ is the only Louisiana to ever sit on the US Supreme Court.
White
Who was the governor that had served with Foster in the state senate from 1884-1892, as a state auditor during Foster’s term in office (1892-1900), and was generally the outgoing administration’s crown prince?
Heard
Who became the first Louisiana Democratic governor to display a hint of progressivism in his administration?
Blanchard
Who was the Superintendent of Education that is considered a Louisiana educational pioneer?
Aswell
Who was the head of the Choctaw organization in 194 and remained as such until his death in 1926, who recognized that provided adequate municipal services made good politics, and also served as mayor of New Orleans?
Behrman
None
Who were the governors during the “Good Government,” from 1912-1924?
Hall and Parker
What did Parker’s administration do from 1920-1924?
A new state constitution (drafted in 1921), Louisiana's first severance tax on oil, a new campus for Louisiana State University, and the beginning of a modern highway system.
None
During the 1880s, the cane fields saw Louisiana’s first experience with agricultural labor organization, which lead to the state’s bloodiest single episode of labor violence known as:
the Thibodaux Massacre of 1887
What was the national order that ambitiously desired to unite all American wage earners that pushed a strike for higher wages?
Knights of Labor
Who was the judge during the Thibodaux Massacre?
Judge Taylor Beattie
Who determined that rice would do well in Louisiana?
Seaman A. Knapp
In the fifty years between the end of Reconstruction and the election of Huey Long as governor, the only serious challenge to Louisiana’s Bourbon oligarch came in the 1890s, what was it?
The Populist party and its republican allies
_____ emerged form the supposedly nonpolitical Farmers’ Union-Alliance movement of the 1880s.
Populism (the People’s party)
Who was the Populist nominee for the 1892 election?
Tannehill
Who won the election of 1892?
Foster
In 1896, who was the Populist-Republican millionaire sugar planter from St. Mary Parish candidate for governor?
Pharr
In 1896, who was the Democratic party nominee for governor that won the election?
Foster
What kind of amendment did Foster propose that was lost in every parish when voted on?
An amendment that would authorize the subsequent session of the legislature to write into law any sort of voting restriction it desired, without resubmission to the voters.
What was passed during Foster’s second term in the legislature?
Several complex registration and election laws that obviously intended to reduce the voting strength of the uneducated of both races. The legislature also refused to increase the state’s diminutive appropriation for public education.
What were the laws called that segregated everything?
Jim Crow laws
The 1890 “separate but equal” law of the Louisiana legislature pertaining to railroads precipitated the _____ case decision.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
What was the most brutal feature of race control?
Lynching
What was the state’s most publicized lynching bee?
Featured white victims: in 1891 a mob in downtown New Orleans, which included representatives of the city’s civic and professional elite, killed eleven Italians and precipitated an international incident.
Who was the man that would later become governor that was involved in the Italian lynching?
Parker
During the time that Louisiana became so notorious for lynching lawlessness, _____, a wealthy planter and lawyer from Lafourche Parish earned appointment to the US Supreme Court in 1894 and rose to chief justice in 1910, a position he held until his death in 1921.
Edward Douglass White
_____ is the only Louisiana to ever sit on the US Supreme Court.
White
Who was the governor that had served with Foster in the state senate from 1884-1892, as a state auditor during Foster’s term in office (1892-1900), and was generally the outgoing administration’s crown prince?
Heard
Who became the first Louisiana Democratic governor to display a hint of progressivism in his administration?
Blanchard
Who was the Superintendent of Education that is considered a Louisiana educational pioneer?
Aswell
Who was the head of the Choctaw organization in 194 and remained as such until his heath in 1926, who recognized that provided adequate municipal services made good politics, and also served as mayor of New Orleans?
Behrman
Who were the governors during the “Good Government,” from 1912-1924?
Hall and Parker
What did Parker’s administration do from 1920-1924?
A new state constitution (drafted in 1921), la/’s first severance tax on oil, a new campus for Louisiana State University, and the beginning of a modern highway system.
What was the new crop of Louisiana?
Rice
The Huey Long Era is from:
1924-1935
Long broke with the past by creating many welfare programs and public works programs based on his philosophy of:
“Share the Wealth”
His ideas were radical for the time and would greatly influence the polices of what four presidents?
Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, and Johnson
What where the three qualities Long had for political success?
Shrewd, Energetic, and Ambitious
What did Long start out as?
A salesman, selling mainly cooking oil.
In 1918, his first election was to a seat on the _____.
State PSC
What company did he love to go against and clashed frequently with?
Standard Oil Company
In 1923, Long decided to run for governor. What were his main problems?
1. Too young
2. Not enough money
3. No statewide organization
4. Not a member of the Bourbon establishment which controlled the state since 1877
5. His work on the PSC had brought him into open conflict with the business and political leaders of the state
None
Who were Long’s two rivals in the 1924 election for governor?
Fuqua and Bouanchaud
The Bourbons branded his program as:
Radical and Revolutionary
Long gained the support of a political group in New Orleans called the _____.
New Regulars
Long won the endorsement of one of the papers in New Orleans, the _____.
New Orleans States
Longs biggest problem with the election of 1928 was in the _____ rural south Louisiana.
French Catholic
Who was one of Long’s opponents in the election of 1928?
Wilson
Long passed a _____ act, which expected low income people from taxes on their homes.
Homestead Exemption
Long eased the poverty of the elderly with a _____ that helped the elderly poor that had no way to support themselves.
Old Age Pension
One of Long’s biggest supporters, _____, the boss of Plaquemines Parish cheated by controlling the elections in the parish and whoever he supported got nearly all the votes.
Perez
In 1930, Long decided he wanted to be a US Senator and the senate seat that he wanted was held by a former friend of his, _____.
Ransdel
The thing that the people of Louisiana hated the most about Long was _____.
His crudeness and vulgarity
Long’s most bitter enemy was Mayor _____ of New Orleans, called him Turkey Head.
Walmsley
After Long won the senate seat, Long had _____, president of the senate, sworn in as governor.
King
Did Long serve as governor and senator at the same time?
No
In the election of 1932, Long got _____, an old friend, elected as governor, and then Long continued to control the state government.
Allen
What was the deduct system?
10% of employees checks were deducted for Long’s political fund
What were Kickbacks?
Long required people who got state contracts to give part of the money back to him.
What tactic would get Long killed?
Gerrymandering
Long criticized Roosevelt’s New Deal Program and offered a more radical alternative called:
Share Our Wealth Program
What effect did Long have on the New Deal?
He made it more liberal
Long wanted to gerrymander a judicial district in southwest Louisiana to defeat his enemy, _____, by combining it with Evangeline Parish.
Pavy
When was Long assassinated?
September 8, 1935
Who assassinated Long?
Weiss, son-in-law of Pavy
Long told _____ where the deduct box was.
Weiss
What was Long’s main advantage?
He was different and especially attractive to the average voters
In just seven years, Long gave Louisiana one of the best _____ in the nation.
Highway Systems
Long anticipated Medicare by starting a _____ for the sick and the elderly.
Welfare System
Long used taxes to pay for all the services he provide mainly from what two sources?
Business and Industry
Long has been accused as being both a _____ and a _____.
Dictator, Demagogue
What made Long unique?
He used his power to give the majority of the people what they wanted out of their state government.
From 1877-1935, people of Louisiana had the shortest lifespan of anyone in the rest of the nation for three reasons:
1. Climate
2. Poor sanitation
3. Highest murder rate in the nation
None
Most of Louisiana’s colleges all had a hard time for two reasons:
1. Weak financial support from the state
2. Most people in Louisiana were too poor to send their children to college
None
What was Louisiana Tech University’s original name in 1894?
Louisiana Industrial Institute
What were the two private black colleges in New Orleans?
Xavier College and Dillard College
What was the biggest problem with the public school system?
The financial burden of maintaining two systems
In 1910, what helped New Orleans with their health problems?
New Orleans got a water filter system and a modern sewage and drainage system.
What was the problem with Louisiana that wasn’t so much in other states?
There are more rivers and streams in Louisiana than any other state in the nation.
The first Louisiana governor to propose a Louisiana highway system was Governor _____ in 1880.
Sanders
Long’s most visible service to Louisiana was a _____.
Paved Road System
One of the things that attracted Americans to Louisiana was the _____.
Latin Culture
Louisiana’s most famous writer was _____.
George Washington Cable
The best writer was _____, who wrote a history of Louisiana.
Grace King
What were the three English newspapers?
Picayune, Item, States
The largest crowd that came for entertainment came for _____.
Horse Races
None
The most important contribution from New Orleans was the creation of _____.
Jazz
Who was the most famous musician to come from New Orleans?
Louis Armstrong
What is the number one resource in Louisiana?
Timber