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37 Cards in this Set

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What is loss?
loss ia an actual or potential situation in which something that is valued is changed, no longer available, or gone.
experiences of losses?
loss of body image, a significant other, a sense of well-being, a job, personal possessions, beliefs, or a sense of self.
2 types of losses?
actual and perceived
actual loss
can be recognized by others
perceived loss
experienced by one person but cannot be verified by others
phsychological losses arwe often perceived lossess in that they are not directly verifiable.
example; a women leaves her job to take care of her childre may perceive a loss of independence and freedom.
anticpatory loss
is experienced before the loss actually occurs.ex; a womans husband is dying and may experience actual loss in anticipating his death.
situational losses
loss of job, the death of a child, loss of functional ability b/c of acute illness or injury
developemental losses
losses that occur in the process of normal development- such as departure of grown children from the home, retirement from career, death of aged parents-can be to some extent be anticpated and prepared for.
sources of loss
a body part, physiologic function or psychologic attribute, separation from an accustomed environment, loss of loved or valued person
loss of aspect of self changes
changes a persons body image, even if not obvious
old age may experience many losses
ex- employment, usual activities, independencce, health, friends, and family
grief
is the TOTAL RESPONSE to the EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE related to loss. manifested in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with overwhelming distress or sorrow.
Bereavement
is the SUBJECTIVE RESPONSE experienced by the surviving loved ones after the death of a person with whom they have shared a significant relationship.
Mourning
is the BEHAVIORAL PROCESS through which grief is eventually resolved or altered; often influenced by culture, spiritual beliefs, and custom.
symptoms that may accompany grief
anxiety, depression, dizziness, weight loss, difficulties in swallowing, vomiting, fatigue, headaches, fainting, blurred vision, skin rashes, excessive sweating, menstrual disturbances, palpitations, chest pain, and dyspnea.
normal grief
may be abbreviated grief or anticpatory grief.
abbreviated grief
is brief but genuinly felt
anticipatory grief
experienced in advance of the event.
disenfranchised grief
occurs when a person is unable to acknowledge the loss to ther persons.
dysfunctional grief
unhealthy grief- may be unresloved or inhibited
factors that affect dysfunctional grief
include a prior traumaatic loss and the circumstances of the present loss, family or cultural barriers to the emotional expression of grief
unresloved grief
is extended in length and severity- may have difficulty expressing the grief, may deny the loss or may grieve beyond the expected time.
dysfunctional grief mau be inferred by
failing to grieve, fails to visit grave, becomes symptomatic of loss during holidays, anniversaries, develops guilt, may consider suicide, unable to discuss the deceased, relationaships with fmaily and friends worsen.
factors contribute to unresolved grief
a perceived need to be brave and in control, multiple losses, uncertainty about the loss of someone, lack of support system
stages of grieving KUBLER-ROSS
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
ENGEL
shock and disbelief, developing awareness, restitution, resolving the loss, idealization, and outcome
SANDERS
shock, awareness, conservation/withdrawal, healing, and renewal
The nuse assess the grieving client for what?
to determine the phase or stage of grieving.
Physiologically, the body responds to a current or anticipated loss with?
stress reaction. The nurse can assess the clinical signs of this response.
normal manifestations of grief
verbalization of the loss, crying, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, and difficulty concentrating.
characteristics of dysfunctional grieving
extended time of denial, depression, severe physiologic symptoms, or suicidal thoughts.
nursing assessment of the client experiencing a loss include three major components
nursing history, asssessment of personal coping resources, and physical assessment.
nursing diagnosis related to grieving
anticipatory grieivng
dysfunctional grieving
interrupted family processes
impaired adjustment
risk for loneliness
planning goals for clients who are grieving the loss of body function or a body part
to adjust to the changed ability and to redirect both physical and emotional energy into rehabilitation
planning goals for clients who are grieving the loss of a loved one
are to remember that person without feeling intense pain and to redirect emotional energy into ones own life and adjust to the actual or impending loss.
skills most relevant to situations of loss and grief
are attentive listening, silence, open and closed questioning, paraphrasing, clarifying and reflecting feelings, and summarizing.