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504 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a-, an-
no, not, without
abdomen
region below the chest containing internal organs (liver, intestines, stomach, gallbaldder, etc)
abdomin/o
abdomen
abdominal
pertaining to the abdomen
Abdominal cavity
space below the chest containing the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, liver and gallbladder; also called the abdomen
abdominocentesis
remove fluid from the abdomen
abdominopelvic cavity
abdominal and pelvic cavities
-ac
pertaining to
achondroplasia
bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size; most common type of dwarfism
acr/o
extremities, top, extreme point
acromegaly
enlargement of the extremities
acrophobia
fear of heights
acu/o
sharp, severe, sudden
acute
diseas of rapid onset, sever symptoms and brief duration
aden/o
gland
aden/o
gland
adenitis
inflammation of a gland
adenoids
resembling glands
adenoma
tumor of a gland
adenopathy
disease of the glands
adip/o
fat
adipose
full of fat
adipose tissue
collection of fat cells
agor/a
marketplace
-al
pertaining to
-algia
pain
amni/o
amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)
amniocentesis
removal of fluid from the amnion
ana-
up
anabolic
relating to anabolism
anabolism
process of building up complex materials from simple materials
anemia
blood condition of low numbers
angi/o
vessel
angiogenesis
development of new blood vessels
angiography
process of recording vessels
angioplasty
surgical repair of the blood vessel
anter/o
front
anterior (ventral)
front side of the body
-ar
pertaining to
arteri/o
artery
arteriole
small artery
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
arthr/o
joint
arthralgia
pain in the joint
arthritis
inflammation of a joint
-ary
pertaining to
atrophy
shrinkage of cells
auto-
self
autopsy
viewing by one's self
axill/o
armpit
axillary
pertaining to the armpit
basophil
granules stain blue with basic stain; play a role in inflammation
bio/o
life
biology
study of life
biopsy
viewing life
blephar/o
eyelid
blepharoptosis
drooping eyelid
bol-
to cast
bol/o
to cast (throw)
bronch/o
bronchial tubes
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchial tubes
carcin/o
cancerous, cancer
carcinogenesis
condition of producing cancer
carcinogenic
pertaining to cancer
carcinoma
cancerous tumor
cardi/o
heart
cardiac
pertaining to the heart
cardiology
study of the heart
cardiomyopathy
disease condition of the heart muscle
cartilage
flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints
cata-
down
catabolism
process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
-cele
hernia
cell membrane
surrounds & protects the cell; determines what enters and leaves the cell
-centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o
head
cephalic
pertaining to the head
cerebr/o
cerebrum - largest part of the brain
cerebral
pertaining to the cerebrum
cervic/o
neck (of the body or of the uterus)
cervical
pertaining to the neck
cervical vertebra
neck region, 7 cervical vertebra C1-C7
chem/o
drug, chemical
chemotherapy
treatment with chemicals
chondr/o
cartilage
chondroma
tumor of the cartilage
chondromalacia
softening of the cartilage
chondrosarcoma
malignant tumor of the cartilage
chrom/o
color
chromosomes
rod-like structures within the nucleus that contain regions of DNA; bodies of color
chron/o
time
chronic
pertaining to time
circulatory system
heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
cis/o
to cut
-coccus (-cocci)
berry-shaped bacterium (plural: bacteria)
coccyg/o
coccyx (tailbone)
coccygeal vertebra
coccyx (tailbone) is a small bone composed of four fused pieces
col/o
colon (large intestine)
colostomy
making an opening from the colon to the outside of the body
combining form
combination of the root and the combining vowel
combining vowel
links the root to the suffix or the root to another root
crani/o
skull
cranial
pertaining to the skull
cranial cavity
brain, pituitary gland
craniotomy
process of cutting the skull
crin/o
secrete (to from and give out)
cyst/o
urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid)
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
cystocele
occurs when part of the urinary bladder herinates through the vaginal wall due to weakened pelvic muscles - hernia in the bladder
cystoscopy
visual examination of the urinary bladder
cyt/o
cell
-cyte
cell
cytology
study of cells
cytoplasm
includes all material outside the nucleus and enclosed in the cell membrane
deep
away from the surface
dermat/o
skin
dermatitis
inflammation of skin
dermatology
study of the skin
dermo/o
skin
dia-
complete
diagnosis
state of complete knowledge
diaphragm
muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
digestive system
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines (small & large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas
disk
a pad of cartilage between vertebrae
dist/o
far, distant
distal
far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure; pertaining to the distant
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid - regulates the activities of the cell by its sequence on each chromosome
dors/o
back portion of the body
dorsal (posterior)
pertaining to the back
-dynia
pain
-eal
pertaining to
-ectomy
excision or removal
electro/o
electricity
electrocardiogram
record of electricity in the heart
electroencephalogram
record of electricity in the brain
electroencephalograph
instrument for recording electricity in the brain
electroencephalography
process of recording electricity in the brain
-emia
blood condition
encephal/o
brain
endo-
within
endocrine gland
secrete within
endocrine system
thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathryoid glands
endocrinologist
one who specializes in internal secretions
endocrinology
study of internal secretions
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of canals within the cell
endoscope
instrument for visual examination within the body
endoscopy
visually examining within
enter/o
intestines (usually the small intestines)
enteritis
inflammation of the intestines
enteropathy
disease of the intestines
eosinophil
granules stain red with acidic stain; active & elevated in allergic conditions such as asthma
epi-
above, upon
epidermis
above the dermis
epigastric
above the stomach
epigastric region
region above the stomach
epithelial cell
skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
-er
one who
erythr/o
red
erythrocyte
red cell
erythropenia
deficiency in the number of red blood cells
ex-
out
excision
process of cutting out
exo-
out
exocrine glands
secrete out
frontal (coronal) plane
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
gastr/o
stomach
gastrectomy
removal of the stomach
gastric
pertaining to the stomach
gastroenterology
study of the condition of the stomach
gastrotomy
process of cutting into the stomach
genes
regions of DNA within each chromosomes
-genesis
condition of producing, forming
-genic
pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in
-globin
family of proteins
glyc/o
sugar
gnos/o
knowledge
-gram
record
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
gynec/o
woman, female
gynecologist
one who specializes in women
gynecology
study of woman
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
hematology
study of blood
hematoma
mass of blood
hemoglobin
blood protein
hemolysis
breakdown of red blood cells
hemostasis
stopping blood flow
hepat/o
liver
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
hernia
protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it
hiatal hernia
occurs when the stomach protrudes upward into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
hist/o
tissue
histologist
scientist who specializes in the study of tissues
hydr/o
water, fluid
hydronephrosis
dilation of the pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys
hydrotheraphy
treatment with water
hyper-
excessive, above, more than normal
hyperglycemia
above normal sugar
hypertrophy
over development
hypo-
deficient, below, under, less than normal
hypochondriac regions
two upper right and left regions below the cartilage of the ribs that extend over the abdomen
hypodermic
under the skin
hypogastric
below the stomach
hypogastric region
lower middle region below the umbilical region
hypoglycemia
below normal sugar
-ia
condition
-iac
pertaining to
iatr/o
treatment
iatrogenic
produced by the treatment
-ic
pertaining to
-ical
pertaining to
ili/o
ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
iliac
pertaining to the ilium
in-
into, in
incision
process of cutting into
inferior
below another surface
inguin/o
groin
inguinal
pertaining to the groin
inguinal hernia
occurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male
inguinal regions
two lower right and left regions near the groin, which is the area where the legs join the trunk of the body
inter-
between
intervertebral
pertaining to between the vertebrae
-ion
process
-ior
pertaining to
isch/o
to hold back
ischemia
hold back blood
-ism
process
-ist
one who specializes in a field of medicine
-itis
inflammation
kary/o
nucleus
karyotype
picture of the nucleus
lapar/o
abdomen, abdominal wall
laparoscope
instrument for visual examination of the abdomen
laparoscopy
process of visual examination of the abdomen
laparotomy
to cut into the abdominal wall
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)
laryngeal
pertaining to the larynx
laryngectomy
removal of the larynx
larynx
voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea
later/o
side
lateral
pertaining to the side
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
contains teh liver (left lobe), sotomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
leuk/o
white
leukemia
condition of the white blood cells
leukocyte
white cell
leukocytosid
increase in white blood cells
-logy
study of
lumb/o
lower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis)
lumbar regions
two middle right and left regions near the waist
lumbar vertebra
loin (wasit) or flank region (between the ribs and the hipbone). Five lumbar vertebra (L1-L5)
lumbosacral
relating to the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum
lungs
where the exchange of gases takes place
lymph/o
lymph
lymphocyte
fight disease by producing antibodies and thus destroying foreign cells
-lysis
breakdown, destruction, separation
-malacia
softening
mamm/o
breast
mammogram
record of the breast
mast/o
breast
mastectomy
removal of a breast
medi/o
middle
medial
pertaining to the middle or nearer the medial plane of the body
mediastinum
centrally located space between the lungs
-megaly
enlargement
meta-
change
metabolism
the total of the chemical processes occurring in the cell
metastasis
beyond stopping
midsagittal plane
divides the body into right and left halves
mitochondria
small, sausage shaped bodies that produce energy by burning food in the presence of oxygen
monocyte
cells with one very large nucleus; engulf & destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells
morph/o
shape, form
morphology
study of the shape
muc/o
mucus
mucous
pertaining to mucous
musculoskeletal system
muscles, bones, and joints
my/o
muscle
myalgia
pain in the muscle
myel/o
spinal cord, bone marrow
myelogram
record of the spinal cord
myeloma
malignant tumor of the bone marrow
myoma
benign tumor of the muscle
myosarcoma
malignant tumor of the muscle
necr/o
death (of cells or whole body)
necropsy
to view death
necrosis
condition of death
necrotic
pertaining to death; death of cells
nephr/o
kidney
nephrectomy
removal of the kidney
nephritis
inflammation of the kidneys
nephrologist
specialist in kidneys
nephrology
study of the kidney
nephropathy
condition of kidney disease
nephroptosis
prolapse kidney
nephrosis
abnormal condition of the kidneys
Nervous System
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collection of nerves
neur/o
nerve
neural
pertaining to the nerve
neuralgia
pain in the nerve
nerological
pertaining to the nerve
neurology
study of nerves
neutr/o
neutrophil (a white blood cell)
neutropenia
deficiency of white blood cells
neutrophil
granules stain blue & red (purple) with neutral stain; important disease-fighting cells. Phagocytes because they engulf & digest bacteria
nucle/o
nucleus
nucleic
pertaining to the nucleus
nucleus
controls the operations of the cell
-oid
resembling
-ole
little, small
-oma
tumor, mass, swelling
omphalocele
a herniation of the intestines through the naval occuringin infants at birth
onc/o
tumor
oncologist
one who specializes in tumors
oncology
study of tumors
ophthalm/o
eye
ophthalmology
study of the eyes
ophthalmoscope
instrument for viewing the eye
-opsy
process of viewing
opthalmologist
one who specializes in the eyes
-ose
pertaining to or full
-osis
condition, usually abnormal
oste/o
bone
osteitis
inflammation of the bone
osteoarthritis
degeneration of the bones & joints, accompained by inflammation
osteogenic
produced in bone
osteomalacia
softening of bone
osteotomy
process of cutting bone
ot/o
ear
otalgia
pain in the ear
-ous
pertaining to
paracentesis
removal of fluid from the abdomen
path/o
disease
pathogenesis
condition of producing disease
pathogenic
pertaining to disease
pathological
pertaining to disease
pathologist
one who specializes in disease
pathology
study of disease
-pathy
disease condition
ped/o
child
pediatric
treatment of children
pelv/o
hip, pelvic cavity
pelvic
pertaining to the hip or pelvic cavity
Pelvic Cavity
space below the abdomen containing portions of the small & large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra and ureters, uterus and vagina in the female
-penia
deficiency
peri-
surrounding, around
pericardium
membrane surrounding the heart
peritone/o
peritoneum
peritoneal
pertaining to the peritoneum
peritoneoscopy
laparascopy - visual examination of the abdomen
peritoneum
membrandes surrounding the organs in the abdomen
phag/o
to eat, swallow
pharynx
throat
phleb/o
vein
phlebotomy
to cut into the vein
-phobia
fear
pituitary gland
at the base of the brain; endocrine gland
plas/o
formation, development
-plasia
development, formation, growth
-plasm
formation
-plasty
surgical repair
platelet
clotting cell
pleur/o
pleura (membrane surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall muscles)
pleura
double-layered membrane surrouding each lung
Pleural Cavity
space between the pleural membranes and surrouding each lung
pleurodynia
pain in the chest wall muscle
pneumon/o
lungs
pneumonia
condition of the lungs
polymorphonuclear leukocyte
nuetrophils
poster/o
back, behind
posterior (dorsal)
pertaining to the back side of the body
prefix
small part that is attached to the beginning of a term
pro-
before, forward
prognosis
knowledge before
prone
lying on the belly
prosim/o
nearest
proximal
near the point of attachment to the trunk of near the beginning of a structure
psycho/o
mind
psychiatrist
one who specializes in the mind
psychiatry
diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
psychology
study of the mind
ptosis
prolapse of the upper eyelid
-ptosis
dropping, sagging, prolapse
pulmon/o
lungs
pulmonary
pertaining to the lungs
radi/o
x-ray
radiographer
one who assists with x-ray
radiology
study of x-rays
radiotheraphy
treatment with radiology
re-
back, backward, again
rect/o
rectum
rectocele
hernia of the rectum
ren/o
kidney
renal
pertaining to the kidney
Reproductive System
female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, mammary glands; male: tests & associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostrate gland
resection
cutting back
Respiratory System
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
retro-
behind
retrocardic
pertaining to behind the heart
rhin/o
nose
rhinitis
study of the nose
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
contains part of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter
root
the foundation of the word
sacro/o
sacrum
sacral
pertaining to the sacrum
sacral vertebra
five bones (S1-S5) are fused to form one bone, the sacrum
sagittal (lateral) plane
lenthwise vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides
sarc/o
flesh
sarcoma
tumor of the flesh
-sclerosis
hardening
-scope
an instrument for visual examination
-scopy
process of visual examination
sect/o
to cut
sex glands
ovaries and testes
-sis
state of
Skine & Sense Organs
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; eye, ear, nose and tongue
-somes
bodies
spin/o
spine, backbone
spinal
pertaining to the spine or backbone
Spinal Cavity
space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal coard
spinal column
bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
spinal cord
nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
splen/o
spleen
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
staphyl/o
clusters
staphylococci
berry-shaped bacterium in twisted chains
-stasis
stopping, controlling
-stomy
new opening (stoma)
strept/o
twisted chains
streptococcui
berry-shaped bacterium in clusters
sub-
below, under
subhepatic
pertaining to under the liver
suffix
word ending
superficial
on the surface
superior
above another structure
supine
lying on the back
thel/o
nipple
-theraphy
treatment
thorac/o
chest
thoracentesis
remove fluid from the chest
thoracic
pertaining to the chest
Thoracic Cavity
space in the chest containing the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta
thoracic vertebra
chest region. Twelve thoracic vertebra (T1-T12). Each bone is joined to a rib
thoracotomy
process of cutting the chest
thromb/o
clot, clotting
thrombocyte
cells that help clot blood (platelets)
thrombocytopenia
deficiency of clotting cells
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of the veins
thrombosis
condition of clot formation
thrombus
actual clot that forms
thyroid gland
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
-tic
pertaining to
-tomy
process of cutting, incision
tonsill/o
tonsils
tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
trachea
windpipe
tracheal
pertaining to the windpipe
tracheostomy
opening to form a mouth in the trachea
trans-
across, through
transheptic
through the liver
transverse plane
plane running across the body parallel to the ground (horizontal)
-trophy
develoment, nourishment
-type
classification or picture
-ule
little, small
-um, -ium
structure, tissue, thing
umbilic/o
naval, umbilicus
umbilical
pertaining to the navel
umbilical region
region of the naval or umbilicus
ur/o
urinary tract, urine
ureters
tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urethra
tube from the bladder to the outside of the body
Urinary or Exretory System
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
urologist
surgeon who operates on the organs of the urinary tract & the organs of the male reproductive system
urology
study of the urinary tract
uterus
womb
ven/o
vein
vewntral (anterior)
pertaining to the front
ventro/o
belly side of the body
venule
small vein
vertebr/o
vertebrae, backbones
vertebra
a single backbone
vertebrae
backbones
vertebral
pertaining to the vertebrae
viscer/o
internal organs
viscera
internal organs
visceral
pertaining to the internal organs
-y
process, condition
superficial
on the surface
superior
above another structure
supine
lying on the back
thel/o
nipple
-theraphy
treatment
thorac/o
chest
thoracentesis
remove fluid from the chest
thoracic
pertaining to the chest
Thoracic Cavity
space in the chest containing the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta
thoracic vertebra
chest region. Twelve thoracic vertebra (T1-T12). Each bone is joined to a rib
thoracotomy
process of cutting the chest
thromb/o
clot, clotting
thrombocyte
cells that help clot blood (platelets)
thrombocytopenia
deficiency of clotting cells
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of the veins