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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the four sub regions of the Loire from west to east
Nantais, Anjou- Saumur, Touraine, Central Vinyards
List the ACs of the Nantais
Muscadet, Muscadet Sevre-et-Maine, Muscadet cotes de grandlieu, Muscadet coteaux de la Loire
List the ACs of Anjou-Saumur
Anjou rouge, anjou villages, anjou villages brissac, anjou gamay, Anjou blanc, coteaux de layon, quarts de chaume, bonnezeaux, savennieres, Cabernet d'anjou, Rose d'anjou, Rose de Loire, Saumur rouge, Saumur blanc, Saumur-Champigny, Saumur- villages
List the ACs of Touraine
Touraine blanc, Touraine rouge, chignon, bourgueil, St nicholas de bourgueil, Vouvray, montlouis
List the ACs of the central vineyards
Sancerre, pouilly-fume, menetou-salon, reuilly, Quincy
Name grapes used in Nantais
Muscadet
Name grapes used in Anjou-Saumur
Red - Cabernet franc
White - Chenin blanc
Rose - Grolleau, Cabernet franc, Gamay
Name grapes used in Touraine
Red - Cabernet franc, Gamay, malbec
White - Chenin blanc, Sauvignon blanc
Name grapes used in central vineyards
Red - Pinot Noir
White - Sauvignon blanc
Rose - Pinot Noir
Describe the soils of the Loire
Varied with tuff eau in parts of anjou-Saumur and Touraine
Describe the soils of Muscadet
Diverse but generally loose textured with good drainage and heat retention.
High in magnesium and Potassium.
Top soils of clay, gravel and sand over sub soils of Gneiss, slate, granite and volcanic rock
Generic Muscadet - silt and sand
Muscadet coteaux de la Loire - Schist
Muscadet cotes de grandlieu - more granite and schist
Describe the climate of Muscadet
Cool, maritime, high rainfall
Winters are short, mild damp but can be harsh with freezing and spring frosts
Early, dry growing season, warm sunshine
Describe the weather patterns of Muscadet
Variable year to year
Spring frosts common
Variable rainfall
State the grapes of Muscadet
Muscadet (aka melon blanc)
State the characteristics of the Muscadet grape
Neutral white variety, green apple, grassy aromas
High acidity
Ripens early and resistant to frost
State the location and size of Muscadet
North west France, Loire valley
From mouth of Loire, south east of Nantes. 13,000 hectares.
State the topography of Muscadet
Gently rolling hills along valley of Loire. Mainly south facing.
State the locations of the subregions of Muscadet
Sevre et maine: around the two rivers, south east of Nantes (3/4 of production)
Coteaux de la Loire: north
Cotes de grandlieu: southwest
Muscadet: whole region (small quantities only)
Comment on viticulture in Muscadet
Traditionally goblet training but now wire training to allow machine harvesting
Canopy management techniques introduced to reduce vigour - Spring pruning and releasing in summer etc
What does the term sur lie mean in Muscadet?
Bottled directly from cask or tank having spent to winter in contact with the lees without racking
Which Muscadet appellations can use the sur Lie description?
Sevre et main, coteaux de la Loire, cotes de grandlieu
Not basic Muscadet
What is the effect of lees contact?
Increases flavour and leaves hint of carbon dioxide
Comment on vinification in Muscadet
Chaptalisation generally used
Fermentation traditionally in cask but now stainless steel
Experiments with barrel fermentation, lees stirring and mall lactic fermentation
Lees contact is frequent with bottling direct from tank at the domaine
Comment on the wine trade in Muscadet
Large numbers of small producers but with consolidation happening
Describe wine from Muscadet
White, dry, slight carbon dioxide, light body, neutral or green fruit, grassy, high acidity, delicate and fresh, to drink hound ( not aged or oaked)
Sur lie gives more body and yeasty character
Describe classic food match for Muscadet
Seafood, especially shellfish
State location of Anjou -Saumur
North west France, along the Loire Valley around the city of Angers to the town of Saumur, about 80km in length
State the soils of Anjou-Saumur
North west i.e. Anjou- Carboniferous rocks and slate
South east i.e. Saumur - Limestone including Tuffeau
State the appellations of Anjou -Saumur
Anjou rouge
Anjou Gamay
Anjou villages
Anjou villages brissac
Cabernet d'Anjou
Rose d'Anjou
Coteau du layon, Bonnezeaux, quarts de chaum, savennieres
Saumur, Saumur- champigny, Saumur rouge, Saumur blanc, Saumur mousseaux
State the grapes used in Anjou-Saumur
Red - Cabernet franc, Gamay
White - Chenin blanc
Rose - Cabernet franc, Gamay, Grolleau
State the climate of Anjou-Saumur
Cool maritime climate with some continental influence
Lower rainfall than Nantais only 500 mm annually
Mild, damp winter
Early spring, longer hot growing season (upto 40 degrees)
State the topography of Anjou -Saumur
Flat, protected from wind and rain by forests of the vendee to south west
Loire river and tributaries create mesoclimates
State the weather of Anjou-Saumur
Annual variations in frost and rainfall and humidity
Comment on viticulture in Anjou -Saumur
Harvesting for sweet wines by hand in tries, either botrytis affected or late harvest because of long ripening season
Comment on vinification in Anjou-Saumur
Stainless steel with some experimentation with barrel fermentation but little use of oak, malolactic, etc
Saumur blanc
Dry White wines made from Chenin blank, high acidity, green fruit, medium body
Saumur rouge
Dry red made from Cabernet franc in a light fruity style, light tannins, crisp acidity, medium to light body, served lightly chilled
Saumur- champigny
Dry red made from Cabernet franc in a light fruity style, light tannins, crisp acidity, medium to light body, served lightly chilled
Coteaux de Saumur
Sweet White wines made from chenin blanc in small quantities, either late harvest or botrytised
Saumur Mousseux
Sparkling White wine made from mainly Chenin blanc with small amount Chardonnay or Sauvignon blanc
Cabernet de Saumur
Dry Rose light wine made from Cabernet franc
Rose d'Anjou
Sweet, Rose made from Grolleau with some Cabernet franc and Gamay, drunk young
Cabernet d'Anjou
Sweet, high acid Rose wine made from Cabernet franc, long lived and ages well in bottle
Anjou rouge
Dry, light body, red, fruity, acidic, catch all appellation
Anjou villages
Areas of better quality Anjou rouge, dry, light, red, acidic, low tannins
Anjou villages brissac
Best area for Anjou rouge, immediately south of angers
Anjou Gamay
Red, dry wines produced from Gamay, light body, light tannins, fruity
Anjou blanc
Dry light body White made from Chenin blanc with high acidity and green apple flavours
Modern style also with fully ripe, late harvest grapes, matured in oak with partial malolactics,
State the location of coteaux du layon
Steep slopes on 20km long strip o the right bank of the river layon as it flows into the Loire to the west of angers.
Soils of coteaux du layon
Variety Including slate
Viticulture in coteaux du layon
Hand harvest of botyrytisrd or fully ripe grapes in tries, max yield 30 hl per hectare
Coteaux du layon
Medium sweet White wine with high acidity, medium body made from Chenin Blanc either with botrytis or late harvest
State the two sub appellations in coteaux du layon
Bonnezeau, quarts de chaume
Coteaux du layon villages
Seven villages in this superior area on slate soils producing medium sweet White wines of high acidity from botrytis affected Chenin blanc
Bonnezeau
Enclave for sweet White wine production in coteau du layon.
Spread over three small hills
Botrytis affected or late harvest grapes grown on steep slopes
Age for 10-20 years in bottle
Quarts de chaume
Small enclave in cotes du layon producing botrytised sweet White wine with high acidity from Chenin blanc, or grapes dried in the vine.
Long lasting in bottle 10-20 years
Brown slate soil, southerly facing, high vine age, small yield
Premium prices
Savennieres
Dry White wines with high acidity made from Chenin blanc. Low yields, slate soils. Needs at least 10 years bottle age. No botyrytisrd because of wind which prevents humidity in more exposed vineyards.
Price levels in Anjou Saumur
Mostly medium priced except Rose which are inexpensive and coteaux du layon and sub appellations which can be upto premium prices
State location and size of Touraine
North West France, Loire Valley, centered on the town of Tours between Anjou-Saumur to the west and central vineywards to the east
Size 5000 hectares approx
State climate of Touraine
Cool continental with warm summers and cold winters at eastern end, but more maritime due to atlantic influence at western end
Early spring growing season, avoids very hot summer temperatures and drought
Moderate humidity
700 mm rain per year
State weather of Touraine
Variable vintages
Approx 700 mm rain per year so not dry
State soils of Touraine
Flint, sand, limestone along Loire and Cher rivers
Tuffeau - soft chalk into which caves are built
State grapes of Touraine
Red - Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Malbec
White - Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc (Chardonnay)
Comment on viticulture in Touraine
Dense planting at at least 4500 vines per hectare
Spraying aginst rot and mildew
Mechanised harvesting
Comment on vinification in Touraine
Chaptalisation is common, also malolactic fermentation used
List the appellations of Touraine (6)
Touraine, Chinon, Bourgueil, St Nicholas de Bourgueil, Vouvray, Montlouis
State price ranges in Touraine
Generic Touraine - inexpensive to medium
Vouvray high to premium
Chinon etc mid to high price
State topography of Touraine
Touraine is a plateau at 130 m above sea level split into two by the valley of the Loire (50m above sea level) with steep vally sides on either side
State trade organisation in Touraine
Many small growers but gradually reducing
Touraine Rouge AC (Touraine Gamay)
Dry red light fruity, acidic, medium body - made mainly from Gamay with cabernet franc, malbec (carbonic maceration)
Mainly from the eastern part of teh region
Touraine Blanc AC (Touraine Sauvignon)
Dry white made mainly from Sauvignon blanc with little amounts of chenin blanc and chardonnay, mainly from east of region
Touraine Mousseux AC
Small production of sparkling wine from sauvignon blanc with smaller amounts of, chenin blanc and chardonnay
Chinon AC
Dry red wine made from Cabernet Franc - dry, light body, red, crisp acidity, low tannins, red fruit and vegetal flavours, served lightly chilled, oak maturation, age in bottle for a year or two to lose rustic nature but no more than five years - lead pencils is a classic description
Characteristics of cabernet franc
early ripening so more adapted to colder climate than cabernet sauvignon, rustic wines, fragrant, light body, red, light tannins, crisp acidity, red fruit and vegetal flavours, drink slightly chilled - may need a couple of yaers bottle age to lose rustic quality and develop complexity, but not more than 5 yaers in bottle
Borgueil AC
Dry light body red made from Cabernet franc - crisp acidity, red fruit and vegetal flavours, low tannins, can be oak matured and then bottle aged to lose rusticity, served lightly chilled
State the location and soils of Chinon
South bank of Loire around Chinon town - three soils: sandy soil in valley of teh Vienne, clay and gravel soils on plateau to north, limestone on slopes (best wine)
State the location and topography of Borgeuil
North bank of Loire, North of Chinon - south facing limestone slopes and a deep sand terrace above Loire
State the location and topography of St Nicholas Borgeuil
North bank of Loire, North of Chinon - south facing limestone slopes and a deep sand terrace above Loire
St Nicholas de Bourgueil
Dry light body red made from Cabernet franc - crisp acidity, red fruit and vegetal flavours, low tannins, can be oak matured and then bottle aged to lose rusticity, served lightly chilled
Name the central vineyards
Sancerre, Pouilly-fume, menetou-salon, Reuilly, Quincy
State the location of the central vineyards of the loire
North/Central France in Loire Valley
Sancerre, pouilly Fume on Valley of Loire as it turns westwards
Menetou-Salon, Reuilly, Quincy - south west of Sancerre along tributaries of river Cher
State the location and size of Vouvray - nb make sure cover vouvray!!
North east of Tours along left bank of loire
State the topography of Sancerre
Dramatic hilltop surrounded by rolling countryside and river valley. Hills at 200-400m above sea - vines on south facing terraces
State the sub areas of soil types in Sancerre
1. White western vineyards - clay and limestone (Kimmeridgean) esp in Chavignol - powerful wines
2. Between Chavignol and sancerre - gravel as well as limestone - delicate wines
3. Near Sancerre itself - flint content high - longer living perfumed wines
Generally soils described as chalky limestone with outcrops of flint
State the climate of Sancerre
Continental with hot summers and cold winters
State the weather of Sancerre
Less variable but liable to spring frosts although teh river moderates temperature fluctuations
State the grapes of Sancerre
White - sauvignon blanc
Red (small volumes) - pinot noir
Viticulture in Sancerre
Cordon or single guyot training
Modern winery practice
Measures to reduce vigour required
Vinification in Sancerre
Modern wineries
Little or no oak used
Drink within 2-3 years
Sancerre white wine
Dry, white, medium body, acidic, no tannins, green fruit, gooseberries, nettles, grassy, herbaceous - no oak, drink young
Classic Sancerre Food matching
Crottin de Chavignol - local goats cheese
Sancerre wine styles
white - most common
red - pinot noir, light style - low quantity
rose - pinot noir - light style - low quantity