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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
PROPOSITION (OR SSTATEMENT)
A sentence of which it makes sense to ask if true or false.
Truth
a property of propositions which correspond to stats of affairs in the real world
Argument
Set of propositions, one of which (CONCLUSION) is claimed to follow from the others (PREMISES)
DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
Argument that IF THE PREMISES ARE TRUE, THE CONCLUSION MUST BE TRUE
PROPOSITION
a sentence of which it makes sense to ask if it is true or false
INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
An argument for which we make claim PREMISES are evidence for CONCLUSION,though they do not guarantee it.
VALID DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
An argument that if every premise is true, then conclusion must be true
INVALID DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
A deductive argument that is not valid, It is possible that every premise is true, while conclusion is false
SOUND DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
A valid deductive argument with every premise true. Thus, conclucision must be true
UNSOUND DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT
A valid argument with ast least one false premise
INDICATOR WORDS
Premises - because, since, as, for, inasmuch as, given that, follows from, due to.
CONCLUSIONS - therefore, hence, so, thus, it follows that, accordingly, for these reasons
ATTACKING THE PERSON

AD HOMINEM (Abusive)
Name calling, or insulting a person to discredit their argument
AD HOMINEM (circumstantial)
Attacking an arguer's circustance to discredit the argument, without any other reason
AD HOMINEM (tu quoque)
"you do it too"
Attacking someone's actions or ideas to discredit their argument
APPEAL TO THE POPULACE
(ad populum)

BANDWAGON
Everyone does it
AD POPULUM (Emotion)
Appeals to emotions of others rther than giving relevant reasons
AD MISERICORDIAM
Appeals to pitying heart
APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY
Speaker attempts to support a conclusion by using a premise that claims that some questionable source says conclusion is true
FALSE CAUSE
Assuming that one event causes the other, without sufficient evidence of the causal connections between the two events.
POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC
Assuming that one event causes the other, merely because one precedes the other
CAUSAL OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Assuming that one event is the only cause other another, when it is just one of MANY causes
HASTY GENERALIZATION
Draws a conclusion that CREATES a general rule, based on too few specific cases, or exceptional cases
SWEEPING GENERALIZATION
Drawing a conclusion by applying a GENERAL rule to a specific case, that is an exception to the rule
SLIPPERY SLOPE
Some proposed action or event is just the first of a series of events that will lead to some disastrous consequence
APPEAL TO TRADITIONAL
Using something "has always been done", to support that it should still be done.