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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
QUANTITY
BE AS INFORMATIVE AS REQUIRED
DONT GIVE TOO MUCH OR TOO LITTLE INFO
QUALITY
DONT LIE
DONT GUESS
RELEVANCE
DONT CHANGE THE SUBJECT
MANNER
A AMBIGUITY
B BREVITY
0 OBSCURITY
P POLITE
0 ORDERLY
REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM
IS Y REALLY ABSURD?

DOES X REALLY IMPLY Y?

CAN X BE MODIFIED IN SOME MINOR WAY SO THAT IT NO LONGER IMPLIES Y?

IF 1 OR 2 = NO THEN REDUC. FAILS

3 = YES THEN REDUC. IS SHALLOW
ATTACKING STRAW MAN
ATTACK A WEAK POSITION THAT YOU HAVE FABRICATED INORDER TO SUPPORT YOUR OWN

ATTACK A CLAIM WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING IT!
REFUTATION BY PARALLEL REASONING
INVALID ARG W/
PARALLEL CONCL = F
PREMISES ARE TRUE

ARGUMENT HAS TO HAVE SAME FORM
EXPLANATIONS
ANSWER WHYYYY

1 - GENERAL PRINCIPLE
2 - STATEMENT OF ITITIAL CONDITION
3 - CONCL. THEY GIVE YOU
VAGUENESS
BORDERLINE CASES

IE CELEBRITY?
ANIMAL SIZE
HEAP
WRITE:
1. ONE GRAIN OF SAND IS NOT A HEAP
2. IF ONE GRAIN IS NOT, THEN TWO GRAINS ARE ALSO NOT HEAP
3. IF N GRAINS ARE NOT HEAP, THEN N+1 IS ALSO NOT HEAP.
CONCL - ANY NUMBER OF GRAINS DO NOT MAKE A HEAP

PREM 3 IS FALSE ADN THIS SHOWS THAT NOONE WILL EVER BE BALD.
SLIPPERY SLOPES
NO DIGN. DIFERENCE BW BEING BALD AND NOT
CONCEPTUAL
WRITE:
THERE IS NO SIGN DIFF. B/W 1 GRAIN AND 2 GRAINS
THERE IS NO SIGN DIFF. B/W 2 GRAIN AND 3 GRAINS
THERE IS NO SIGN DIFF. B/W 1 GRAIN AND N GRAINS
CONCLU- THERE IS NO SIG. DIFF. BW I GRAIN AND HEAP
FAIRNESS
WHERE TO DRAW LINE?

1. THERE IS NO SIG DIFFERENCE BW A AND B
2. IT IS UNFAIR TO TREAT NOT SIGN. DIFFERENT CASES SIGN. DIFFERENTLY UNLESS PRAC. REQUIRES DRAWING A LINE SOMEWHERE

3A: PRAC. DOES NOT REQUIRE DRAWING LINE
3B: PRAC. DOES REQUIRE LINE BUT LIKE CAN BE DRAWN MORE REASONABLY SOMEWHERE ELSE

CONCL - IS IS UNFAIR TO TREAT A AND B SIGN. DIFFERETLY

ARG. IS FALLACIOUS IS BOTH 3A AND B ARE FALSE
PREM 1 AND 2 ARE ALWASY TRUE
CAUSAL ( DOMINO THEORY)
ARE CLAIMED EFFECTS REALLY BAD?
ARE ANY OF THE CLAIMED EFFECT REALLY LIKELY?
DO THESE DANGERS OUTWEIGH THE BENEFITS OF WHATIS BEING CRITICIZED?

YES TO ALL = STRONG ARG.
ANY = NO THEN ARG. IS QUESTIONABLE ON THAT BASIS
AMBIGUITY
CONFUSION BAOUT SOMETHING MEANING
FALLACY OF EQUIVOVATION - WHAT IS IT?
MEANING ONE WORD IS AMBIGIUOUS
FALLACY OF EQUIVOVATION - process
DISTINGUSIH POSSUBLE MEANING OF AMBIG. EXPRESSIONS

FOR EACH MEANING, RESTATE ARG. TO THAT EXPRESSION HAS CSAME MEAING IN ALL PREM NAD CLNCLUSION

EVALUATE RESULTING ARGUMENTS SEPARATELY

IF BOTH SYNTHESIZED ARG. ARE FALLACIOUS THEN EQUIV. EXSISTS

IS EITHER IS SOUND THEN THERE IS NO EQUIVOCATION MERELY CONFUSION
FALACY OF RELEVANCE
STATING THINGS THAT ARE TRUE THEMSELVES BUT HAVE NO BEARING ON THE CONCL

IS IS IMPLIED THAT THERE IS A VCONNECTION BW REASON AND WAHT YOU ARE ARGUING
ADHOMINEM ARG
ATTACK SPEAKER 3 TYPES
DENIERS
DENY TRUTH OF CONCLU NOT BECAUSE OF CONTENT BUT BC OF SPEAKER! ALMOST ALWAYS FALLACIOUS
SILENCERS
DO NOT ATTACK CLAIM BUT RAHER ARGUE THAT SPEAKER HAS NO RIGHT TO SPEALK IN CERTAIN CONTENT NOT ALWAYS FALLACIOUS.
DISMISSERS
SPEAKER IS UNTRUSTWORTHY/UNRELIABLE QYESTION THAT MOTIVES OF THE CLAIM NOT THE CLAIM ITSELF. NOT ALWAYS FALLACIOUS
APPEAL TO AUTHORITY
TO DETERMINE THE APPEAL OF AUTHORITY
TO DO APPEAL OF AUTHORITY
1 - IS CITED AUTHORITY REALLY AN AUTHORITY IN THE AREA?
2- IS THIS KIND OF ISSUE THAT CAN BE SETTLED BY AN EXPERT OPINION
3- HAS AUTHORITY BEEN CITED CORRECTLY
4- CAN CITED AUTHORITY BE TRUSTED TO TELL THE TRUTH
5 - WHY IS APPEAK TO AUTHORITY BEING MADE AT ALL?

IF 1-4 ANSWERS ARE YES - THEN APPEAL IS JUSTIFIED
VACUITY
ARG. ARE USUAL TRUE (VALID) AND MAY EVEN BE DONDS, BUT ARE FALLACIOUS BECAUSE THEY ARE CIRCULAR

PREM IS CHAIN OF ARG. REPEATS
BEGGING THE QUESTION
PREMISE PRESUPPOSED CONCL

YOU COULD HAVE NO REASON TO BELIEVE HTE PREMISE IF YOU DID NOT ALREADY HAVE SAME REASON TO BELIVE CONCLU.
SELF SEALERS
ARGUMENTS FOR WHICH NO CONTEREXAMPLE CAN BE PROVIDED

SEEM PERFECT BUT ARE VACUOUS
3 WAYS AN ARG. CAN BE SELF SEALER
CAN INVENT ARBITRATY WAY OF DISMISSING EVERY POSSIBLE CRITICISM

CAN COUNTER CRITICISM BY ATTACKING CRITICS

CAN USE WORDS IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE POSITION BECOMES TRUE BY DEFINITION
CHANGING DEF. TO SELFISH TO MEAN ACTION TO DO WHAT YOU DESIRE TO DO
2 RESPONCES TO SELF SEALERS
1. ASK FOR A PREDICTION - IF ARG US SELF SEALER THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO RULE ANYTHING OUT

CREATE REFUTATION BY PARALLEL REASONING. JEWS AND PANDAS ARE RULING WORLD!