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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Deductive argument
intention to give absolute proof of conclusion
Inductive argument
Give proof of the probable truth of conclusion
Cogent
Inductive argument cogent if and only if it is strong and has true premises
Sound
Deductive argument if valid and has true premises
Valid argument
True premises and true conclusion
Appeal to the people
Appeals to the listener's desire for security love respect, etc.
Ad Hominem
Argument against the person
Accident
General rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover
Straw man
Arguer distorts opponent's argument and then attcks the distorted argument
Missing the point
Draw a conclusion different from that supported by premises
Red Herring
Arguer leads reader off track
Appeal to unqualified authority
Citing untrustworthy authority
Appeal to ignorance
Premises report that nothing is known or proved, and then a conclusion is drawn
hasty generalization
conclusion is drawn from atypical sample
false cause
conclusion depends on nonexistent or minor causal connection
weak analogy
Conclusion depends on defective analogy
False dichotomy
Either or statement that truely hides other alternative
Equivocation
Conclusion depends on a shift in meaning of a word or phrase
Amphiboly
Conclusion depends on the wrong interpretation of a syntacticaly ambiguous statement
composition
attribute is wrongly transferred from parts to whole
Division
Attribute is wrongly transferred from whole to parts