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12 Cards in this Set

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How do local anesthetics work?
By blocking Na channels (this halts action potentials)
Potency of local anesthetics is determined by what?
lipid solubility
What determines the rate of onset of local anesthetics?
pKa. The lower the pKa, the faster the onset
The addition of what compound to local anesthetics speeds their onset?
Sodium bicarbonate
The addition of what compound to local anesthetics increases their duration?
Epinephrine.
How does epinephrine increase the duration of effect of local anesthetics?
By causing vasoconstriction. All local anesthetics (except cocaine) cause vasodilation which shortens their duration
Which local anesthetics are amides?
The ones with an "i" before the "-aine" in their names: lidocaine, bupivicaine and etidocaine
How are amide local anesthetics metabolized?
Slowly by the liver
How are ester local anesthetics metabolized?
Rapidly by plasma cholinesterases
Systemic toxicity is more likely with ester or amide local anesthetics?
amides
What is the maximum dosage of lidocaine without epi?
5 mg/kg
What is the maximum dosage of lidocain WITH epinephrine?
7 mg/kg