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28 Cards in this Set

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Local anesthetics work by _____.
blocking impulse conduction along axons
What are the two groups of local anesthetics?
Esters
Amides
What is commonly combined with a local anesthetic?
Vasoconstrictor
Epinephrine
Delays systemic absorption
How are esters broken down?
Enzymes in blood called esterases
How are amides broken down?
Enzymes in liver
What is the prototype drug for the ester local anesthetics?
Procaine
Procaine is a ________.
Ester type local anesthetic
What is the prototype for amide local anesthetics?
Lidocaine
Cocaine is a ______.
Ester type local anesthetic
Cocaine should be given with epinephrine as a local anesthetic.
T or F
False
General Anesthetics produce _____ and a lack of _____ to all painful stimuli.
unconsciousness
responsiveness
What are the two groups of General Anesthetics?
Inhalation
IV
How do inhalation anesthetics work?
Enhancing transmission at inhibitory synapses
Inhibit neuronal nicotinic receptors
What is MAC?
Minimum Alveolar Concentration
low MAC indicates high potency
What are the adverse reactions to general anesthetics?
Malignant Hyperthermia
Increase sensitivity of the heart to catecholamines
What is the prototype drug of volatile inhalation anethestics?
Halothane
Halothane is a _______.
Volatile Inhalation anesthetic
What are adverse reactions of Halothane?
Hypotension
Malignant Hyperthermia
Isoflurane is a ______.
Volatile Inhalation anesthetic
Isoflurane is much like ______.
Halothane
Laughing gas is known as ____.
Nitrous Oxide
Short Acting Barbiurates are used for _____.
Induction of anesthesia
Short Acting Barbiutates are known as ____.
Thiobarbiturates
What is the prototype Thiobarbiturate?
Thiopental
Thiopental is a _____.
Short Acting Barbiutate
Thiopental has a ____ onset and a ____ duration.
rapid
short
Ketamine produces a state called "____".
dissociative anesthesia
Propofol is a ____.
sedative-hypnotic used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia