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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an adaptive change brought about by experience and involving a CNS neuronal mechanism?
Where must learning occur?
What is the storage and recall of a past experience?
Are the areas involved in learning and memory the same or different?
They are somewhat different
What type of memory is accessible to conscious recall?
Declarative memory
What type of memory is due tyo skill or habit?
Procedural memory
Is procedural and declarative memory located in the same are of the brain?
No they are in two very different locations.
What are two examples of declarative memory?
1. Episodic memory - remembering events
2. Semantic memory - remembering facts
What area of the brain is very involved in declarative memory?
What area of the brain is very involved in procedural memory?
Striatum, amygdala and cerebellum
Classical conditioning is an example of what type of learning?
What is really going on in the example of Pavlov's dogs and procedural memory?
The areas involved including the areas of the auditory nucleus bring in the sound and olfactory areas bringing in the smellare joined in the cerebellum and onto some areas of the cortex, but mostly the brainstem and finally on the cranial nerve nuclei.
In declarative memory, are all areas of memory as strong as the others?
No there is play between which areas are strong and those that aren't.
The story of HM taught scientists what?
The hippocampus plays a big role in short term and long term memory.
After HM had his temporal lobe removed, what was the result?
He had problems encoding short term memory into long term memory.
What areas (5) are involved in encoding short term memory into long term memory?
1. CA fields
2. Dentate nucleus
3. Subicular cortex
4. Entorhinal cortex
5. Perihippocampal cortex
The story of NA (the model airplane guy) taught scientists what about the process of learning?
Unilateral damage to the temporal cortex can disturb learning and memory, but not as global as bilateral damage.
The story of RB (bleed out) taught scientists what?
That the area CA1 in the hippocampus has large pyramidal cells that are very sensitive to ischemia. When these cells are lost, anterograde amnesia is a problem.
Describe the tri-synaptic circuit in the hippocampus.
1. Dentate nucleus receives information from the entorhinal corticies and sends them to CA3 using mossy fibers
2. The large pyramidal cells in CA3 send the signal to the pyramidal cells of CA1
What is the large lesson that was taught by patients who had hippocampus damage?
1. They all experienced anterograde memory deficits yet lost no procedural memory. Their recall prior to their trauma was intact.
2. Emotional memory is also encoded in the hippocampus.
3. Memory can be lateralized.
What was learned about the location of long term memory from the patients who had damage to their hippocampus?
Long term memory is not stored in the hippocampus. The patients all had normal recall.
What is the basic processing pathway of the hippocampus?
Information is funneled into the hippocampus and then processed. That processed information is then sent back out to the corticies. It is like a loop.
When does the processing out of the hippocampus seem to happen and why does it happen at this time?
It seems to occur at night due to the high levels of cortisol and norepinephrine.
Does hippocampal damage seem to affect motor function?
No it doesn't.
What is the function of the perirhinal cortex?
It primarily is a multimodal cortex that brings in a lot of information and funnels it to the hippocampus for processing.
What type of function does the cingulate cortex have?
It mainly deals with spatial relationships. It has cells that react to certain positions that an animal is in, in space. They are called place cells.
What type of memory is the amygdala mainly associated with?
Emotional memory
Describe how the amygdala works.
The amygdala receives lots of sensory and stress information and processes that information. The information is then sent out to the corticies for storage.
Is the amygdala lateralized?
Yes it is.
What is aversive learning associated with?
Deeper areas of the amygdala.
How is aversive learning different than associative learning?
Aversive learning only takes one trial to make the association while pure association learning takes many trials.
What is the strongest unconditioned stimulus?
What is the problem associated with aging and learning?
The real problem lies within the recall of memory. The actual encoding of the memories is not impaired.
Is their neuron loss with aging?
No, there is mainly shrinkage of the neurons.
What is the decline in brain weight due to in aging?
The loss of neuropil and synapses.
Is their a good correlation between damage in AD and memory loss?
No there is not.
What are some of the pathologies seen in AD?
1. Neuron loss
2. Loss of Ach from the basal forebrain to the hippocampus
If you have a lot of damage to your hippocampus, what can you do to stay as functional as possible?
Stay active in learning and it will help preserve your synapses.
Patient S (the reporter) helped scientists realize what about memory?
The hippocampus and the amygdala are important in determining what memories are important which memories aren't.
What are the three stages of learning?
1. Learning
2. Memory
3. Forgetting
What are the four temporal classifications of memory?
1. Immediate term (seconds to minutes)
2. Short term (minutes to hours)
3. Intermediate (hours to days)
4. Long term (days - years - lifetimes)
Is the hippocampus required for recall of the memories it processed?
What did Nadel find the hippocampus can do in reagrds to multimodal information that it stored?
It can link the different areas of the brain that they are stored in so that the recall is easier.
What hormone is important from movement from intermediate memory to long term memory? When do you see the levels of this hormone rise?
1. Cortisol
2. During sleep
What food hormone also seems to increase the number of synapses in the hippocampus?
What receptors can be important in both learning and forgetting?
NMDA receptors