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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did the Reformation begin as?
A religious protest
A divinely ordained structure in which the two rulers played equal but different roles
Holy Roman Empire
How were the Emperor and the Pope chosen for office
election
How many princes elected the Emperor and of what nationality were they?
7, German
In theory, the _______ was supposed to be the bodyguard of the _______
Emperor, Pope
Until when did the "States of the Church" exist as a country
19th century
What was the Marburg Colloquia
A Meeting of Protestant Leaders
What helped to spread the secular ideas of the Renaissance
the printing press
What was the Pope unable to do in germany
impose central authority
What was the corruption in the lower clergy
The illiteracy of priests and monks as well as rule breaking
in the late 1300'S and early 1400's which two gentlemen advocated for Church reform
John Wycliffe and Jan Hus
This Italian friar preached fiery sermons to Florence only to be turned upon a year later
Savonarola
Where did Martin Luther teach?
University of Wittenberg
Did luther intend on starting a religious revolution?
no
Who did Luther take a public stand against for his actions
Johann Tetzel
How was Tetzel raising money to rebuild St. Peter's cathedral
selling indulgences
what is an indulgence
a pardon
What were Luther's three main teaching points
1. People could win salvation only by faith
2. all church teaching was based on the bible
3. All people with faith are equal
Although illegal, who sheltered Luther
Prince Frederick the wise of Saxony
What agreement decided that the rulers of the German states would decide their own religion
The Peace of Augsburg
what was the church of England called?
the Anglican church
John Calvin's book about God, salvation, and Human Nature
Institutes of christian religion
The idea that God already knows when and who someone will be saved
Predestination
The religion based on Calvin's teachings
Calvinism
Scottish preacher who adopted Calvin's teachings
John Knox
Who was the most influential man in the Reformation
John Calvin
What were Calvin's followers called?
Huguenots
Forerunners to Baptists and Quakers
Anabaptists
Who protected John Calvin from being executed for his beliefs while living in France
Marguerite of Navarre
Who started the Catholic Reformation
Ignatius of loyola
What was agreed on at the council of Trent
"The Church's interpretation of the Bible was final
Church Tradition and the Bible were equal authorities
Indulgences were ok
Good works and Salvation were both needed
who was Henry VIII's secret wife?
Anne Boleyn
Did Anne Boleyn bore Henry VIII's son he wanted?
no
Which wife gave Henry VIII a son?
3rd
What was Henry VIII's son named
Edward
When Knox instilled Calvin's teachings in Scotland, he put a group of laymen in charge of each of the churches. What were these laymen called?
presbyters
What was the worst outbreak of conflict between Catholics and Huguenots
August 24, 1572 - St. Bartholomew's Day
what was the turning point in St. Ignatius' life
in 1521 when he was injured in a war
Who were descendants of the Anabaptists
Amish and Mennonites
What were St. Ignatius' followers called?
Jesuits
What were the three things jesuits focused on
Education, conversion, and stopping Protestant spreading
What were the 3 problems for every Pope
How to maintain political power in Italy
How to defend wealthy possesions of the Roman catholic Church
How to act as the spiritual leader for all Christians
What term was used to refer to the political side of the church
the Papacy
Why was the Papacy stronger than the Empire
it bypassed all national differences and struck its roots deep throughout Europe
What corrupted Popes?
Absolute power and enormous wealth
What was Leo X's real name
Giovanni de'Medici
What was Leo X's famous quote after he was elected pope
"God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it"
Did Luther come from wealth
no
At what age did Luther receive his master's degree in philosophy
22
Where did Luther receive his master's degree in philosophy
University at Erfurt
Was Luther's father supportive of his entering the monastery
no
What did Luther want to prove to his father by entering the monastery
his independence
As a monk, Luther was extremely __________
Scrupulous
What was Luther's main defense to his encounters with the devil
attack with language then physicality
Who was Luther's superior in the monastery
John Staupitz
When did luther obtain his doctor's degree
1512
In what year was St. Peter's Basilica demolished?
1506
When were the 95-Thesis posted
October of 1517
How much time did the Papacy give Luther to take back what he said before excommunication
60 days
Was Luther actually kidnapped
no
who kidnapped Luther
Men sent by Prince Frederick of Saxony to protect Luther
Who was the man who wanted to discard Catholicism and start a new religion?
Andreas von Karlstadt
Who was the priest who approved of the Zurich citizens eating meat on Ash Wednesday in 1522
Ulrich Zwingli
How successful was the reforming at the Castle of Marburg in 1529
only partly
Who proclaimed the age of saints, and also wanted to get rid of all rulers and establish his own law
Thomas Muntzer
Who labeled Luther "The Pope of Wittenburg"
Thomas Muntzer
What religious group did Zwingly start?
the anabaptists
What was the most deadly conflict between Protestants and Catholics
Peasants' War of 1524
Where was the first armed clash between protestants and catholics
Switzerland
What did the armed conflict of Zurich, Switzerland foreshadow
the thirty years war
What was the church's weapon to combat heresy
the inquisition or "holy office"
What was the purpose of the council of Trent
to try to find a compromise between protestants and catholics
head of a monastery
abbot
the buying and selling of holy offices
simony
the bankers of Europe "Medici's of Germany"
The Fuggers
what does primogeniter mean
first born gets all inheritance
writer of Utopia
Thomas More
Where was Jan Hus a teacher
University of Prague
What was Jan Hus' book of thoughts called?
DeEcclesia
What were Jan Hus' followers known as?
Hussites
John Wycliffe's religious rebellious group
Lollards
This man was set up to be killed at a meeting where he thought he was safe
John Wycliffe
Who were the "dogs of God"
the dominicans
Who was the woman Luther falls in love with
Catarina Vombora
Famous for his analysis of Luther
Dr. Erricson
Which monacstic order did Luther join?
Augustinine Aramites
Who was Luther's "Sidekick"
Melancthon
A statement of principals for Lutheranism, Written by Melancthon
Augsburg Confession
What city did John Calvin start a theocracy in?
Geneva
Who comes to meet with Luther in January of 1519
Papal Nuncio
Who corners Luther at Leipzig
Johann van Eck
Start of the 30 years war, Jesuit who wanted to stop Protestantism
Ferdinand II
Who was the forerunner of Justification by Faith
John Wycliffe
What was a non political or religious problem in Germany
witches
Who was in charge of St. Peter's Basilica
Raphael
What was the capital of Austria during the Reformation
Vienna
Said the court was too great
Pope Pius II
What Religious order was Tetzel
Dominicans