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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
-theatrical producer during commonwealth period & formerly a court playwright;
-circumvented Puritan restrictions on theater;
-produced “The First Day’s Entertainment at Rutland House” and “The Siege of Rhodes”, which used a proscenium arch & wing-and-shutter set, is considered the first English opera, and first used actresses
Killigrew stayed with royal family in France during exile
Devenant & Killigrew
D&K granted patent on London theater by Charles II in 1660; divided their company into Davenant’s Duke’s Company of younger actors and Killigrew’s King’s Company of older actors
John Dryden
most notable author of Restoration tragedy; “All for Love” = transformation of “Antony & Cleopatra” into neoclassical tragedy;
heroic tragedy
serious drama of the Restoration period,
extraordinary characters undertaking extraordinary deeds; themes of love & honor
Aphra Behn
-very successful writer of comedy of intrigue during English Restoration;
-first woman English playwright;
-also first to earn a living as the writer;
-"The Forced Marriage” = first play;
-“The Town Fop” and “The Rover”;
-tragicomedies of intrigue, very contrived, influenced by Spanish theater and Italian commedia;
comedy of manners
-focuses on the fashions and foibles of the upper class (gossip, adultery, sexual escapades);
-poke fun at social conventions and period norms;
-satirize upper-class preoccupation with reputation;
-importance of language (wit, repartee, sexual suggestion);
-influenced by Moliere;
-dramatic structure combines French & Italian neoclassical theater with Elizabethan theater (crisis & episodic forms);
-stock characters with names describing traits; fop = common character;
-“The Country Wife”, “Love in a Tub”, etc
William Wycherly
-comedy of manners;
-satirized elegant society and was also a member of it;
-wrote only a few plays, hobby not profession;
-borrowed material from Moliere and Terence;
-master of sexual humor;
-sponsored at court by King’s favored duke;
-“The Country Wife”,
-in later years, fell out of favor in court
William Congreve
-another Restoration dramatist;
-wrote 4 comedies, including “The Way of the World”, later considered best Restoration comedy;
-“The Way of the World” bridged bawdy Restoration comedy & 18th century sentimental comedy
Nell Gwynn
-best-known theater personality of Restoration era;
-famous for comic performances, dancing, and liaison with Charles II;
-began as orange girl at Theater Royal in Drury Lane;
-became mistress of leading actor, Charles Hart;
-known for singing, dancing, charm, beauty, and wit;
-specialized in breeches roles;
Christopher Rich
most successful theatrical business man of Restoration; controlled patents issued to both Davenant and Killigrew; exploitive lawyer who managed the finances of the United Company; bad financial practices led to revolt of actors
breeches roles
dramatic device instated after women began performing on English stages in 1660; parts that required women to dress as men; ex. “The Country Wife
contract system
–replaced sharing plan system;
-actors hired for a specific period of time at a set salary;
-marked decline of actors’ control over theater in London (companies outside London continued to use sharing plan);
-included use of benefit performances
Thomas Betterton
-finest actor of the Restoration;
-member of Davenant’s Duke’s Company (shareholder and leading actor);
-also noted for performances in Shakespeare’s plays;
-attention to detail, self-discipline, restraint;
-model of English oratorical style until mid-18th century;
-esp. noted for Shakespeare’s tragic heroes, though had a wide range for both comedy & tragedy;
-married leading actress in Duke’s Company;
-became co-manager after Davenant’s death;
-studied French theater innovations in Paris;
-headed United Company after merger of Duke’s and King’s Companies;
-led revolt of actors against Rich & company management, set up rival company, eventually collapsed due to financial instability
Drury Lane
– theater in London still existing;
-first built by Killigrew in 1663, known as Theater Royal, descriptions vary;
-simple, classical, elegant;
-seated 650 ppl; pit, box, gallery arrangement; 34ft deep platform stage, back half framed by proscenium & held scenic elements;
-Killigrew & Davenant's companies' homes
-patent passed to Christopher Rich, bankrupted & closed in 1709
-18th century gentleman ghost
Dorset Garden
-third major theater in London during Restoration
-evidence to suggest it was used primarily for plays with extensive scenic effects
drame bourgeois
-dramatic form championed by Denis Diderot;
-any serious play that did not fit the neoclassical definition of tragedy and featured middle-class protagonists;
-also middle-class or domestic tragedy;
-themes of middle-class morality;
-sentimental and melodramatic, i.e. openly emotional and good vs. evil;
-ex. “The London Merchant”
sentimental comedy
popular dramatic form in England;
-similar to Restoration comedy, but reaffirms middle-class morality (virtue rewarded, wickedness punished);
-comedies of manners = satirize socials norms and conventions;
-in France, featured emotional & virtuous characters beset by misfortune, but ends happily;
-ex. “The Rivals”, “The School for Scandal”
ballad opera
-English parody of Italian opera;
-popularized in 1730’s by “The Beggar’s Opera”;
-no sung dialogue (recitative);
-spoken dialogue alternated with songs set to popular melodies;
-lower class characters;
-social & political satires
opera comique
-evolved from French pantomime-like entertainment;
-printed cards displayed text in rhyming couplets, action was mimed by performers;
-spectators encouraged to sing dialogue;
-characters drawn from commedia;
-became increasingly like ballad opera as legal restrictions eased;
-by mid-century, less satirical & comic, more sentimental with recognizable French characters
R.B. Sheridan
-best-known writer of sentimental comedy;
-also theater manager and politician;
-“The Rivals”, “The Duenna” (long-running ballad opera);
-became part-owner of Drury Lane;
-“The School for Scandal”, “The Critic”;
-restricted unlicensed theaters;
-spectacle and pantomime;
Denis Diderot
-“Discourse on Dramatic Poetry” defined drame bourgeois;
-greater realism on stage (acting and scenic);
-wrote plays to illustrate ideas, ex. “The Illegitimate Son” and “The Father of the Family”; “The Paradox of Acting” supported case for a studied rather than emotional actor;
-concept of “fourth wall”
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
responsible for important innovations in German theater;
-theater director, critic, playwright, and philosopher;
-involved in “storm and stress” movement;
-first important play = “Goetz von Berlichingen”;
-believed theatre should transcend the ordinary;
-intensive rehearsals, ensemble company, rehearsal rules;
-believed actors should address audience;
-routine blocking patterns, but careful stage compositions;
-“Rules for Actors” addressed personal behavior to improve social status;
-established “stage German” dialect;
-oversaw sets and costumes;
-historical accuracy;
-regulated audience reactions
Sturm und Drang
“storm and stress”, Germany;
- rejection of dramatic rules;
-not uniform in playwriting techniques, some imitated Shakespeare’s episodic structure;
-“Goetz von Berlichingen” and “The Robbers”;
-Goethe & Friedrich Schiller;
-radical in style and subject;
-forerunner of 19th century romanticism
Covent Garden
-opened by John Rich, 1732;
-extravagant pantomimes and revivals;
-one of two theaters licensed by the 1737 act;
-theater enlarged twice, ultimately to 3000 seats;
-site of first historically accurate production of “King John” in 1824;
The Licensing Act of 1737
issued by Parliament;
-restricted the presentation of drama to the Drury Lane and Covent Garden theaters;
-made the lord chamberlain responsible for licensing plays, rather than the master of revels;
-stipulated against profit and particular list of presentations
Carlo Gozzi
-sought greater antirealism in commedia;
-noble, but impoverished Venetian family;
-began writing as a young man;
-thought realism made commedia mundane & boring;
-mixture of prose & poetry;
-planned action & improv;
-25-year association with Venetian acting company;
-10 fantasy plays based on Western & Asian myth;
-“The King Stag”, “The Green Bird”;
-all elements should emphasize the fantastic
Carlo Goldoni
-sought greater realism in commedia;
-middle class of Venice;
-house dramatist for theater in Venice;
-attempted comic interludes, tragedies, tragicomedies, opera librettos;
-house dramatist for another theater;
-moved commedia from scenarios to full scripts;
-discouraged masks and improv;
-“The Venetian Twins”, “The Mistress of the Inn”;
-created plays with oriental theme;
-wrote in Paris late in life;
-took stock characters towards sentimentality
boulevard theaters
-located on Boulevard du Temple;
-catered to popular tastes;
-invented many types of musical entertainments to avoid monopolies of government theaters;
-developed from popular fair entertainments such as comic opera, pantomime, and melodrama;
-all eventually put under control of Opera in 1784
ground rows
silhouette cutouts along the stage floor
act drops
curtains at the front of the stage
emerged in boulevard theaters at end of 18th century; spectacular effects, violent action, moral lessons; good vs. evil
local color
the inclusion of places audience members will recognize from their own community; re-creating recognizable locales
the Bibiena family
-most influential Italian designers and theater architects of the 18th century;
-three generations, 7 family members; 3 innovations: baroque art in scene designs, vast scale and ornamentation of settings, and angle perspective (several vanishing points);
-settings extend beyond proscenium arch;
-established style of scene design on a grandiose scale
Charles Macklin
-attempted to utilize historically accurate costumes;
-best known for sympathetic, tragic portrayal of Shylock in Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice”;
-strolling player before acting at Lincoln’s Inn Field;
-later became member of Drury Lane Theater;
-considered primarily comic performer;
-many lawsuits; natural performance style rooted in observation and mimicry;
-method described in John Hill’s “The Actor”; dismissed from Drury Lane after actors’ strike;
-later became playwright
David Garrick
-oversaw entire production process = early director;
-surprisingly natural style;
-acting based on observation;
-equally skilled in comedy & tragedy;
-became a patent holder at Drury Lane Theater;
-championed natural acting style, development of character traits through preparation & research;
-long rehearsal periods;
-strict disciplinarian;
-banished spectators from stage;
-experimented with historical accuracy
Dumesnil and Clairon
-two of the greatest French actresses;
-notorious rivals, contrasting techniques and styles;
- Dumesnil excelled in passionate roles; leading tragic actress;
-Clairon made debut @ age 13 at Comedie Italienne in Paris, spent time in provinces, returned to Opera in Paris in 1743; auditioned for Comedie Francaise in a tragic, rather than a soubrette role;
-both played successfully at Comedie Francaise;
- Dumesnil relied on inspiration, Clairon relied on craft;
-Clairon praised in Diderot’s “The Paradox of Acting”;
- Clairon adopted more natural speaking style, and pursued historical accuracy
Caroline Neuber
-formed troupe with husband in 1725;
-German actress and actor-manager who attempted to reform popular theater;
-introduced neoclassical dramatic forms;
-focused on rehearsal and staging;
-initially eliminated some comic, clown characters;
-insisted on memorization of lines;
-performed Gottsched’s model repertory;
-eventually broke with critic;
-most acclaimed as comic actress