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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which lobe of the liver is the biggest? smallest?
right lobe; caudate
Where is the gallbladder located?
on the right
What does the size of the liver do the arrangement of the kidneys?
the right kidney is lower the left
What forms the common bile duct?
Cystic duct from gallbladder & common hepatic duct
What are the components of bile secreted by the liver?
water & cholesterol
bile salts = Na & K salts of bile acids
bile pigments (bilirubin) from hemoglobin molecule
What are the components of bile secreted by the liver?
water & cholesterol
bile salts = Na & K salts of bile acids
bile pigments (bilirubin) from hemoglobin molecule
What is heme broken into?
iron and bilirubin
What are the functions of liver?
Carbohydrate metabolism:
Turn proteins into glucose
Turn triglycerides into glucose
Turn excess glucose into glycogen & store in the liver
Turn glycogen back into glucose as needed
What is the other function of liver?
Lipid metabolism:
Synthesize cholesterol
Synthesize lipoproteins----HDL and LDL (used to transport fatty acids in bloodstream)
Stores some fat
Breaks down some fatty acids
What are.. other liver functions?
detoxify blood
remove waste like bilirubin
release bile salts to help emulsify
Stores fat soluble vitamins- A, B12, D, E, K
What vitamin does the liver produce?
Activates vitamin D (the skin can also do this with 1 hour of sunlight a week, needs oils)
Where does the digestion of carbohydrates occur?
mouth - salivary amylase
duodenum - pancreatic amylase
Brush border enzymes (maltase, sucrase & lactase) act on disaccharides
What caues lactose intolerance?
mucosal cells of the small intestine fail to produce lactase
Where does the digestion of lipids occur?
Mouth (lingual lipase)
Small intestine (emulsification by bile
pancreatic lipase splits into fatty acids & monoglyceride
no enzymes in brush border)
What is responsible for mechanical digestion in the large intestine?
Smooth muscle:
perialstic waves-
haustral churning
gastroilial reflex
gastrocolic reflex
What occurs during bacterial fermentation of the large intestine?
undigested carbohydrates into carbon dioxide & methane gas
undigested proteins into simpler substances (indoles) = odor
turn bilirubin into simpler substances that produce color
What produces vitamin B and K in the large intestine?
Bacteria produce vitamin K and B in colon
What occurs during defecation?
Gastrocolic reflex moves feces into rectum
Stretch receptors signal sacral spinal cord
Parasympathetic nerves contract muscles of rectum & relax internal anal sphincter
External sphincter is voluntarily controlled