Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a. Public work done at private expense (think Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade)
b. NOT "work of the people"
c. An expansive look at liturgy (whatever happens in the Christian Assembly for the common good is liturgy)
Lex orandi legem credendi
"Let the law of praying constitute the pattern (law) of believing."

Important to remember that the emphasis of praying over believing is a wrong.

Liturgy requires instruction.

lex orandi & lex credendi shape each other - it is a reciprocal relationship

The liturgy gets into you and begins to shape you and your thinking
1. Actions which acquire an overlay of things people can agree on which save time, conveying things that are hard to convey verbally. (handshake)

2. Within the culture they can convey the meaning well

3. Glue that links one to the past through repeated actions and to the people around who are doing the same ritual.

4. Help us deal with what cannot be verbalized

5. Rituals are symbolic actions (some can get out of touch with the origin)
Symbols & Signs
Sign: encoded bit of information that isn't neccessarily verbal but conveys information (sometimes not known thougout a culture)

Symbol: a sign Plus - Elicits more of an emotional response

Tillich: "a symbol is a sign that participates in the reality it represents."

The cross is a symbol.
Intiation as a Ritual Pattern
a. Marcia Eliade - “put people back in touch with foundational events. You transcend the profane world and get in touch with the sacred world which exists as a sort of shadowy parallel.”

b. Some rituals can lose their meaning and even become toxic. The churching of women, bringing women back into the church in early England.
Examples of Types of Initiation
Puberty Rites
Sub-groups (Daughter of the King)
Mystical vocation (GOE, Ordination)
General elements of intiation
a. initiation takes place on sacred ground, with a link to the ancient world, a hearkening back in some way.
b. A violent separation from the mother as part of the puberty rite and the mothers ritually mourn their children as dead.
c. The mysteries of initiation are not supposed to be discussed with uninitiated people.
d. This kind of teaching is experiential. They are shown what is new to them.
e. A change of diet. Think of Lent.
f. Other ordeals. Sleep depravation. Forcing to meditate, even if you are not an introspective person.
General elements of intiation #2
1. Sacred ground
2. Link to an "Old Time"
3. Eliade: violent separation from mother
4. disciplina arcani - secret teaching
van Gennep's three stages of initiation
1. Separation
2. Limen - threshold phase
3. Incorporation
van Gennep's Separation
1. sequestration (taking candidates away from usual settings),
2. fasting,
3. often nudity,
4. ordeal,
5. giving of the lore
van Gennep's Limen
1. handing back of lore
2. quality of being neither former nor future status
3. phase where one is about to become something

Communitas happens in this phase, depth and bonding with others in same phase
van Gennep's Incorporation
1. washing and anointing
2. investiture (new clothes, new status)
3. feasting
4. acceptance and embrace
What is the initiation transformation (separation to incorporation)?
ordeal-washing and anointing
Significance of John's baptism
John's baptism dealt with moral impurity rather than ritual; this was a subversive point he was making

John was clear about distinguishing his baptism from the one to come
Paul on initiation
a. incorporation into body of Christ
b. experience of dying/rising with Christ
c. receive gifts/life of Spirit at baptism
d. emphasis on God's activity
Jewish roots of baptism
Mainly dealt with ritual impurity, and in bathing of proselytes to purify them for participation in Judaism
Confirmation in NT
hard to find confirmation in scripture; bath and meal are sufficient for full initiation, though we also see laying on of hands
Luke-Acts on initiation
a. in the name of Jesus
b. for forgiveness of sins
c. with pattern of hearing, believing, and confessing (Ethiopian eunuch)
d. emphasis is on human activity
Matthew 28
Great Commission
baptism in Trinitarian formula
Didache on initiation (2nd century)
a. summary of church teaching
b. immersion in cold, running water
c. threefold dunking
d. name of F, S, HS
e. no anointing or handlaying
f. fasting of minister and candidate prior to rite
Hippolytus on baptism (circa 3rd century)
a. prayer over water
b. blessing of oil
c. exorcism of candidate
d. 3fold baptism w/Trinitarian formula (F, S, HS)
e. anointing
f. investiture

-this was done privately (these are adults--think modesty!)
-the part below becomes confirmation/eucharist, but at this point it is part of the unified baptismal rite:

g. entry into church
h. laying on of bishop's hands
i. anointing/signing by bishop
j. kiss from bishop

k. prayer with assembly
l. kiss of peace
Hippolytus on confirmation (circa 3rd century)
a. entry into church
b. laying on of bishop's hands
c. anointing/signing by bishop
d. kiss from bishop

-this was done publicly
-this is what becomes confirmation, but at the time was all part of the baptismal rite
Hippolytus on eucharist (circa 3rd century)
a. praying with assembly
b. kiss of peace

-these things were part of the one service of baptism, confirmation, and eucharist; they lead up to first eucharist
Hippolytus on requirements for baptism (circa 3rd century)
-scrutiny of candidates (only those with undivided loyalties); must be approved by a bishop
-catechumenate is 3 years long
-daily exorcisms
-catechumenate was a public work of the congregation
Tertullian (2nd-3rd century)
-opens door for splitting of baptism and confirmation rites because he says the spirit has 2 separate functions in the rite (cleansing and gifts)
-he didn't actually make the split himself
-washing of water for cleansing of sins
-imposition of hands to receive the gifts of the HS
Donatists on baptism (3rd-4th century)
-Controversy was resolved by saying that heretics do not need to be baptized, but need laying on of hands
-establishes baptism as a once-only rite
-Stephen of Rome is a proponent of this
Mystagogical Catechesis
-4th century post-baptismal instruction
-explanation of sacramental theology, including of the eucharist and baptism
Key points of Patristic initiation (2nd-4th century)
-initiatory rite is unified (baptism, confirmation, communion)
-the norm is adult baptism, emphasizing walking the walk rather than learning a body of information
-a corporate event
Structure of baptismal rite in 600ad
-entry into baptistry
-ephatha (opening of eyes/nose/ears)
-renunciation of Satan (face West)
-profession of faith (turn to East)
-blessing of water
-anointing of head
-(in some places, footwashing)
-giving of the garment
-imposition of hands/giving of HS
-lamp given
-entry into church for eucharist, often with milk and honey
Structure of baptismal rite in high/late middle ages (post 1000ad)
1. reception into catechumenate (at door of church)
a. named at door
b. signed with cross
c. insufflation (breathing in face to drive out evil spirits)
d. salt on child's lips for exorcism

2. exhortation (at door)
a. Mark 10 read aloud
b. ephatha of nose/ears

3. baptism in baptistry
a. godparents read creed
b. 3fold dunking
c. anointed with oil by presbyter
d. given white robe
e. sponsors sometimes given candle
f. mothers not present (mom party)
Changes in baptismal rite, 7th and 8th century
-shift to infant baptism as the norm (idea of original sin, high infant mortality rates, post-baptismal sin can be forgiven)
-catechumenate disappears (they're babies! also, church and society are enmeshed--Christianity isn't secret)
-a child would get confirmed when bishops came around (not easy or often--bishops rode by on horses)
-presbyters begin to baptize (esp. in Gaul/Germany), because there too few bishops
More about medieval initiation
-church relies on society to do some of its catechesis; church and society are sort of the same thing so it is no longer formalized
-sponsors are for social climbing, reconciling feuding families
-too many sponsors; the new rule is 2 of same gender, 1 of opposite
-eucharist withheld until age of ~7 (age of reason); baptism happens without eucharist or confirmation
-the baptism/confirmation rite are now fully separated (big break started in 7th-8th century)
Confirmation rite until Vatican II
a. opening prayer
b. imposition of hands
c. anointing with chrism (comes to be the focus over imposition of hands)
d. "embrace"- actually a slap on cheek

-conveys HS somehow
-completes baptismal rite
-infants (no adult profession)
What do the Reformers inherit?
a. confirmation rite is free from baptism
b. baptism is done to infants
c. godparents are filling social roles
d. time b/t baptism and confirmation is short
e. confirmation rite is truncated
f. many people are not confirmed
g. bishops ride by on horseback to anoint and don't even follow truncated rite
h. bishops aren't in diocese much, and when they are they are busy with other stuff
Luther's reformation of baptism/confirmation
-conservative changes
-keeps most parts of rite
-all anointings/impositions are presbyteral (no bishops needed)
-real change is that it happens in context of congregation
-added Flood Prayer, which emphasizes faith community rather than original sin
-done in vernacular
-essential for Luther: Trinitarian formula, Mark 10, and 3fold dipping
-didn't think much of confirmation (turned it into catechism for youth; idea of HS is gone)
Zwingli's reformation of baptism/confirmation
-cuts the rite down further from Luther: no exorcisms or extra stuff
-no indication that God was doing anything; it was purely to accept child into the covenant (NT form of circumcision)
-scrapped confirmation
Calvin's reformation of baptism/confirmation
-substitutes talking for doing
-abolishes confirmation
-baptism is about incorporation into community; no grace is conferred (predestination-what's the difference)
-changes reading from Mark to Matthew (suffer little children)
BCP 1549 rite on baptism [] means not in 1552
-Flood Prayer
-[signing with cross on forehead/chest]
-Mark 10
-[LP and creed]
-renunciation of Satan (3fold)
-confession of faith (3fold)
-child asked if s/he desires baptism; sponsor answers
-[blessing of font]
-prayer for candidates
-dipping, w/Trinitarian formula
-signing with cross
-[giving of white cloth and anointing]
Theology of initiation in 1549 BCP
-cleansing from orignial sin
-done b/t morning prayer and communion
-done in presence of whole congregation on a Sunday/holy day within 8 days of birth

-The book was a conservative revision of Sarum Missile, Lutheran and Spanish cardinal sources
-radical only for use of vernacular and standardization
Theology of initiation in 1552 BCP
-All happens inside church in front of congregation
-remove all elements of Roman superstition and popery
-More radical protestants contested elements of the 1552--it didn't go far enough:
---reference to baptismal regeneration
---Q asked of godparents rather than parents
---sign of the cross
---private emergency baptism by non-clergy

-The book is much more radical, protestant (though baptismal changes are more subtle)
What's taken out in the 1552 baptismal rite
-signing with cross on forehead/chest
-blessing of font
-giving of white cloth/anointing
Other BCP revisions in 16th/17th centuries
1559- same as 1552
1604- baptism no longer legally compelled
---modernized language
---push towards Laudians (ceremonialists)
---adds adult baptism
---must be confirmed or "ready and desirous" of confirmation in order to receive communion
Cranmer on confirmation
-it's not a sacrament
-modifies medieval rite
---crucial element is imposition of hands
---not anointing
---adds exhortation
---presumes that it follows examination in the catechism
-not a part of MP or eucharist (so not public, less emphasis on community)
Confirmation in classical "Anglicanism"
-It follows catechism—it is an incentive to catechizing.
-“Logocentric” confirmation- emphasis on word rather than ceremony
-Core of rite is prayer followed by imposition of hands
---Some argue it’s a pious graduation ceremony after catechizing
---Some few argue that grace is actually infused into the candidate through the bishop’s hands (ceremonialist)
-BCP says confirmation is mandatory for communion
---until 1662 loophole of "ready and desirous"
---in actual practice, not enforced
-rite of confirmation not popular until 1680s, when Act of Toleration makes religious competition a reality. Anglicans have two things others don't: Bishops and BCP
Confirmation in the 18th century
-becomes the chief pastoral work of the bishop, and links the confirmand into apostolic succession (almost as if ordained)
Confirmation in the 19th century
-railroads make confirmation more prevalent because bishops can travel (1830s)
-Evangelicals: it is a pious graduation ceremony after catechizing
-Anglo-Catholics: it is grace that comes from the bishops hands
Wesleyan initiation
-2 services of baptism in the service book (1784 and 86 Sunday service books), one for infants and one for adults
- In 1784, takes out confirmation, godparents, creeds, examination (no one speaks on behalf of infants), and allows dipping as well as immersion and aspersion (sprinkling); renunciation of evil and affirmation of faith remain for adult
-In 1786, he takes out the sign of the cross and all references to regeneration. He adds pouring as a means of delivering water.
-defends infant baptism b/c of covenant and stain of original sin (not so different from Calvin)
Roman Catholic 3-stage model in 19th century
(infant baptism is assumed)
-confession (~age 7)
-communion (~age 7)
-confirmation (~age 10-12)

-this is an inverted initiation process
Liturgical movement in 20th century
-moves toward recovering baptism as full initiation
-roots in Roman Catholicism (Benedictine monastery, Maria Laach)
-chief concern of movement is meaningful participation by laity in the mass (which has been in latin)
-Associated Parishes for Liturgy and Mission (1946) helps movement spread into ECUSA
-theological shift is understanding sacraments are not quantifiable things (medieval idea), but are based on relationship to the living God through Christ (Odo Casel)
Odo Casel
-sacrament is a 3rd century term that replaced the original "mystery," that which God reveals
-He frames sacraments as our participation in what God does in the Paschal Mystery
-baptism is an event, a cornerstone that inaugurates relationship with community (compare to medieval thought about stockpiling sacraments)
-Casel important to Vatican II and BCP revisions
-He wrote Mystery of Christian Worship
1971 Poconos statement by the House of Bishops
-referred to baptism as full initiation (confirmation is no longer the gate to communion)
-1979 BCP picks this up, which moves toward baptism as relationship and discipleship, rather than washing off sin and having “celestial fire insurance”
Vatican II on initiation
-3 important texts: Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (not the liturgical texts but the general principles), Decree on Missionary Activity, Constitution on the Church
Vatican II assertions on initiation
1. baptism is not private but public (whole congregation is affected)
2. therefore, the Catechumenate must be restored:
a. sponsors from the laity, as reps of whole community
b. Catechumens are objects of concern for whole community
c. Catechumens are part of the church, even if not yet full members (can marry/be buried)
d. The presence of catechumens helps full members to reflect on their own conversion and living out of baptism.
3. Liminality is a positive spiritual good; the disorientation of in-between is a good thing.
4. Catechists, evangelists, sponsors need to be drawn from the laity
3 stages of the Rites of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA)
1. Evangelism and decision
2. Purification and Enlightenment
3. Complete rite
RCIA stage 1: Evangelism and Decision
Beforehand, you tell people about the church and collect those interested, who become:

a. Catechumens are publicly enrolled- the beginnings of the spiritual life and fundamentals of Christian teaching have begun to take root; it means the first stirrings of repentance, the start of the practice of prayer, and some experience of the company of Christians.
b. Several years in length- but it is flexible, at least a year
c. Emphasis on maturation in Christian life
d. Doctrinal teaching, life in community, participation in worship (but not receiving eucharist) and in church’s ministry—catechumens are to manifest the church’s teaching in social action. They are dismissed after Liturgy of Word, for instruction.
RCIA stage 2: Purification and Enlightenment
a. Typically at the final Lent before the rite (remember it was a couple of years); the Rite of Election (BCP-Enrollment) takes place
---they're now called Competentes
b. Tradition/reddition of lore [creed and LP] as ritual highlights in Lent
---still dismissed before Eucharist, now for internal reflection (not instruction)
RCIA stage 3: Complete Rite
a. Baptism and confirmation (all done by parish priest), back to back. Adults are not to be baptized without receiving confirmation immediately, and then receiving eucharist.
b. To be done at Easter Vigil
c. Often followed in succeeding weeks by post-baptism catechesis, a mystagogical look ahead to the rest of their life
Innovations of the Rites of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA)
-it’s all about the unified initiatory rite, done by pastors. The bishop can’t be at all places in the diocese on the Easter Vigil, so the pastor has to be able to do it.
-emphasis on preparation and learning to walk the walk (much like Hippolytus, but without the emphasis on scrutiny). Person is absorbing the teaching of the church and living it out in his/her life—moral and social action, Christian fellowship.
-It is a gradual process that can take a year or more. Catechumens will at some point likely feel discouraged, which is a normal part of the Christian life. This is different from the Protestant approach that dunks a person as soon as s/he desires baptism.
-Now there is a preference for immersion.
-Infant baptism is not the liturgical ideal, according to Kavanagh and others, but it is still the statistical norm.
-The parish priest confirms as the norm in RCIA, but only with permission of the bishop in the case of adolescent confirmation (the bishop is the norm). If you are baptized as an infant you still go through the old rite, in the baptism-confession-communion.
-Liturgical masterpiece of Vatican II
How does ECUSA use RCIA: or, "Why do we care?"
-In the early 1980s, ECUSA picks up RCIA. The stages in the BOS (Book of Occasional Services) look much like the steps of RCIA: rite of admission, instruction and reflection with a sponsor, rite of enrollment (first Sunday of Lent), and baptism at Easter Vigil. Some parishes reserve adult baptism to the vigil alone.
-Some places (Milwaukee) allow for the "functionally unbaptized" to use the Catechumenate as preparation for reaffirmation, reception, and confirmation.
Confirmation for Episcopalians
1. Freestanding ritual for us that still has its own life (as it does in RC church for adolescents)
2. Progression in BCP revision:
a. 1971 (PB Study 18)- had no confirmation, reception, or reaffirmation. Bishops didn't like it (what will we do?).
b. 1973 (PB Study 26)- the rite for reaffirmation of baptismal vows is repeatable (unlike confirmation)
c. 1976- confirmation is back as a one-time ritual, but have 2 other cognates in reaffirmation and reception. We all renew vows when another is baptized, and/or on 4 days.
d. 1979- Confirmation is not repeatable, baptism is affirmed as full initiation, confirmation is required for some functions: ordination, some vestries, etc.,
-It is a political document, a compromise document, and is 20+ years old; on the other hand, it established a common ground for discussion among church bodies.
Why infant baptism?
-It is God who acts in baptism; we are the respondents-Children are in family from beginning
-Raised in Christian homes, they can make their own reaffirmation later
-It is inclusionary; in Acts, whole homes were baptized
-Christian counterpart to Jewish circumcision
Why not infant baptism?
-It's about discipleship
-Hippolytus says it is about the changed life; the moral life
-Early on, no provision for post-baptismal sin
-Babies don't know limenal, doctrinal knowledge, etc. to make choices
-Liturgical conundrums