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38 Cards in this Set

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Pathos
Qualities of a fictional or non-fictional work that evoke sorrow or pity. Over-emotionalism can be the result of an excess of pathos.
"You don't understand!!! They killed my dog!!!"
Ethos
Ethical appeal; when a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on presentation of image of self through text. Reputation is sometimes a factor in ethical appeals, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience's confidence.
"You must do this if you are a good person."
Logos
Human reasoning which seeks to attain universal understanding and harmony; appeal to logic.
Facts and figures
Deductive Reasoning
A form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, then applies the generalization to a specific case or cases.
Generalization to a specific case
Inductive Reasoning
A form of reasoning which works from a body of facts to the formulation of a generalization; frequently used in science and history.
Specific facts to a generalization
Red Herring
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue.
"Let's talk about this other issue now instead."
Zeugma
The writer uses one word to govern several successive words or clauses.
She discovered New York and her world.
Litotes
Opposite of hyperbole; litotes intensifies an idea by understatement.
"It wasnt my best moment."
Enythymeme
A syllogism in which one of the premises - often the major premise - is unstated, but meant to be understood.
"Children should be seen, not heard. Be quiet, John." (the minor premise that John is a child is left to the ingenuity of the reader)
Syllogism
A form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them.
This is a form of deductive reasoning.
Verisimilitude
The appearance of truth, actuality, or reality; what seems to be true in fiction.
A twisted reality; a world that is not really as it seems; perhaps untrue
Tone
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization of the sentence and global levels.
How does the author feel about his or her subject?
Synecdoche
Part of something is used to stand for the whole.
Threads for clothes and wheels for cars are examples of this.
Non-sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow." When one statement isn't logically connected to another.
"That doesn't make sense!"
Satire
A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portrating it in an extreme way. Satire doesn't simply abuse (as in invective) or get personal (as in sarcasm). Satire targets groups or large concepts rather than individuals.
Many comedy skits take real-life events and portray it in an extreme way, often revealing a critical message.
Post Hoc Ergo Proper Hoc
Latin for "after this, therefore because of this." When a writer implies that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second. Establishes an unjustified link between cause and effect.
"I danced and then it rained. Therefore, I made it rain."
Begging the Question
A logical fallacy where the conclusion of the argument is hidden among its assumptions - and so the conclsuion, not surprisingly, follows the premises. Very similar to CIRCULAR REASONING.
"If these people are guilty, and have shown no remorse, this can only mean that they are bad people, and we can therefore conclude that they are guilty."
Circular Reasoning
A logical fallacy where the conclusion of the argument is hidden among its assumptions - and so the conclsuion, not surprisingly, follows the premises. Very similar to BEGGING THE QUESTION.
The Bible tells me that faith in God is a good basis for forming beliefs. In general, what the Bible says is true. Therefore, faith in God is a good basis for forming beliefs.
Straw-Man Argument
Logical fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position. To "set up a straw man" or "set up a straw-man argument" is to create a position that is easy to refute, then attribute that position to the opponent.
Person A: I don't think children should run into the busy streets.
Person B: I think that it would be foolish to lock children up all day.
Ad-Hominem Argument
Latin for "against the man." When a writer personally attacks his or her opponents instead of their arguments.
"What do you know? You smoke cigarettes all day!"
Hasty Generalization
The precipitous move from true assertions about ONE or a FEW instances to dubious or even false assertions about ALL. Usually lies behind a stereotype.
I have met ten Hungarians, and all ten of them are bad at speaking English. Therefore, all Hungarians do not speak English very well.
Antithesis
A balancing of two opposite or contrastic words, phrases, or clauses.
Brutus: "Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more."
Bandwagon Appeal
Trying to establish something that is true because everyone believes it is true.
"How can you argue that God doesn't exist? Everyone believes in God!"
Fallacy of Many Questions
A question that is unanswerable unless all three of its implicit presuppositions are true. Example: When did you stop beating your wife? (it implies that you have a wife, that you had beaten her, and that you had stopped beating her)
"Does your mother know you're gay?"
Ambiguity
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. Also, the manner of expression of such event or situation may be ambiguatious. Artful language may be ambiguous. Unintentional ambiguity is usually vagueness.
"Black Dog House" - A black house for all dogs? Or a house only for black dogs? What is the term "BLACK" referring to?

Also consider: "People have equal rights" and "Everyone has a right to property." Does that mean that everyone has an equal right to property?
Death by a Thousand Qualifications
A misleading statement that makes a strong claim, but does not reveal its qualifcations. Once the qualifications are revealed, the original description loses all content.
"Young Smith was the best student I've ever taught in an English course." That may be true, but how long have you been teaching? Only one year? And you only had 8 students in the course?
Oversimplification
Generalizations that exaggerate and therefore oversimplify the truth. Usually can be disproved with a simple counter-statement. Example: "Taxation is unfair." Some taxes are unfair, but some are fair.
"Poverty causes crime." "Taxation is unfair." "Truth is stranger than fiction." "True stories are more amazing than fictional stories."
False Dichotomy
Either/or reasoning; this is a more complex form of oversimplification. A pair of contrary alternatives is presented, and mere contraries do not exhaust the possibilities. There are other alternatives.
"You are either with me or against me! No other alternatives!"
Equivocation
Latin for "equal voice" - that is, giving utterance to two meanings at the same time in one word or phrase. "Euthanasia is a good death. A good death is dying peacefully at an old age. Therefore, euthanasia is dying peacefully at an old age." This is untrue because euthanasia can not be defined as dying peacefully in one's old age. Euthanasia technically means helping kill another person, and young people can be euthanized also.
Equal Voice
Fallacy of Composition
Logical fallacy in which the reasoning commits the error of arguing from the true premise that each member of a group has a certain property to the not necessarily true conclusion that the group (the composition) itself has the property. Example: Because John is the best player at forward, David is the best center, and so on, therefore the team of John, David... is the best team.
Laura is the best at math. Jason is the best at science. Daniel is the best at English. David is the best at social studies. Put them together and you have the best academic group ever.
Fallacy of Division
Logical fallacy that occurs when one reasons logically that something true of a thing must also be true of at least some of its constituents. Example: If a plane can fly across the ocean, then one of its engines can also fly across the ocean.
The average American family has 1.8 children, so does it follow that your brother and sister-in-law are likely to have 1.8 children?
Poisoning the Well
This kind of reasoning is an attempt to poison the well - that is, an attempt to shift attention from the merits of the argument - the validity of the reasoning, the truth of the claims - to the source of origin of the argument. Example: Hitler supported equality of men and women, which makes that immoral. Or: A scoundrel believes the world is round, therefore the world is flat.
"You know, Hitler supported gender equality. That makes it immoral."
Genetic Fallacy
Here the error takes the form of arguing against some claim by pointing out that its origin (genesis) is tainted or that it was invented by someone desrving our contempt. Example: "The Declaration of Independence is bad because Thomas Jefferson owned slaves."
"Capital punishment arose in barbarous times; but we claim to be civilized; therefore, we should discard this relic of the past." Really? Just because capital punishment originated in barbarous times?
Appeal to Authority
Using a notable person and his or her views and actions to attach weight on an argument. The person is not an expert on the issue and should not have any credibility. Example: "Capital punishment is good because Abraham Lincoln, a great president, signed many death warrants during the Civil War."
"John is a Nobel Prize-winning physicist! And he thinks that marijuana should be legalized! So there!"
Slippery Slope
An argument that says if something is allowed, then it will be just the first step down the path that leads to bad things. Also known as the wedge argument, it implies that the first step necessarily leads to the second, and so on down the slope to disaster, when in fact there is no necessary slide from the first step to the second at all. Example: Cars cause more deaths than guns do. If you oppose handguns on the ground that doing so would save lives of the innocent, you'll soon find yourself wanting to outlaw cars."
"If we let gay people marry, then people will eventually want to marry their own dogs! Then people will want to marry their own inanimate objects!"
Appeal to Ignorance
An argument that invites the audience to draw an inference from a premise that is unquestionably true - but what is that premise? It asserts that there is something "we don't know." But what we DON'T know can't be EVIDENCE for or against anything! Our ignorance is no reason for believing anything. Example: "No one knows how many innocent people have been wrongfully executed, therefore the death penalty is too risky."
"No one knows how many innocent people have been wrongfully executed, therefore the death penalty is too risky."
False Analogy
An analogy where the two things differ in essential and relevant respects. Example: "Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during tests. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why then, shouldn't students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?" The comparison fails because doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren't taking a test to see how much they have learned. The essential situation is different.
"Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during tests. After all, surgeons have X rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why then, shouldn't students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?"
Protecting the Hypothesis
A tactic where the arguer protects a hypothesis by abandoning adjacent or connected hypotheses. No matter what observations are brought against it, the arguer will count nothing as falsifying it.
I do not fully understand this fallacy. ~Dat Le