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71 Cards in this Set

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Abstract Language
: Describes ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places. It is usually described in concrete language
Ad homonym
Latin for “against the man.” A writer personally attacks his or her opponents instead of their arguments.
Ad populum
Latin for “to the crowd.” A fallacy of logic in which the widespread occurrence of something is assumed to make it true
A story in which people, things, and events have another meaning
EX- Orwell’s Animal Farm. The animals represent the leaders of the Russian Revolution
The repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, normally at the beginning of words
EX-In Romeo and Juliet, “I’ll look to like if looking liking move.”
A reference to something in history or literature, especially mythology or Biblical
EX- In Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio refers to Dido, Cleopatra, Helen, and Hero and Thisbe.
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way
Assignment of something to a time when it was not in existence
EX-The striking of the clock in Julius Caesar
A kind of repetition in which the last word or phrase of one sentence or line is repeated at the beginning of the next
EX-For I have love long, I crave reward,
Reward me not unkindly; think of kindness
A comparison to a directly parallel case
Deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs
EX-Winston Churchill’s “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields” speech.
A brief recounting of a relevant episode
Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data
An important opponent of the main character or protagonist
EX-In To Kill a Mockingbird, the antagonist is Bob Ewell
The repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order, much like chiasmus, the difference being that the words are repeated
EX-One should eat to live, not live to eat
A balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses
Direct address, usually to someone or something that is not present or is not alive
EX-In Romeo and Juliet, “Oh deadly sin! O rude unthankfulness!
A character, action, or situation that is a prototype or pattern of human life; a situation that occurs over and over again in literature, such as a quest, an initiation, or an attempt to overcome evil. Many myths are archetypes. Two common types of archetypes are setting and character.
Exploring of a problem by investigating all sides of it; persuasion through reason
A form of reasoning which works from a body of facts to the formulation of a generalization. It is the opposite of deduction
EX-If all the people you've ever met from a particular town have been very strange, you might then say, "All the residents of this town are strange.”
A form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, then applies it to a specific case
EX-All the men in a certain room are bakers, all bakers get up early to bake bread in the morning, and Jim is in that specific room. Knowing these statements to be true, a person could deductively reason that Jim gets up early in the morning
A writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on presentation of image of self through text. Reputation is sometimes a factor in ethical appeals, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience’s confidence.
Qualities of a fictional or non-fictional work that evoke sorrow or pity. Over-emotionalism can be the result of an excess of pathos
: Human reasoning which seeks to attain universal understanding and harmony
Identifies the subject as a part of a larger group with shared features
Based on the assumption that a subject may be shown more clearly by pointing out ways it is similar to something else
Based on the assumption that a subject may be shown more clearly by pointing out ways in which it is unlike another subject
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The play has to take place within a 24-hour period. Antigone takes place in “real” time; the audience experiences the action as it happens/unfolds
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The action of the play is set in one place. Antigone is set in front of the royal palace in Thebes
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
There is one hero and one plot. The action in Antigone focuses on Antigone’s determination to bury her brother Polyneices and the consequences of her actions.
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
As the hero meets his catastrophe, he recognizes his flaw and why he must die. In Antigone, Creon admits his responsibility in the deaths of his family and confesses he was too proud.
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The opposite of what the hero intends occurs. In Antigone, Creon thinks he is doing the right thing by imprisoning Antigone, but this action leads to the suicides of his family.
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The tragic flaw that leads to the hero’s downfall. In Antigone, Creon’s tragic flaw of holding himself above the prophets and the laws of the gods dooms him.
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The release of emotion (pity or fear) from the audience’s perspective. After watching Antigone, the audience will feel pity for the tragic deaths and fear for themselves because if even the “best” in society fall, what future awaits the common man?
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
Arrogance before the gods. In Antigone, Creon’s pride and arrogance cause his downfall
: A dramatic convention where the actor directly addresses the audience but is not supposed to be heard by the other actors on the stage
EX-In the garden under Juliet’s balcony, Romeo addresses the audience as he speaks of his love for Juliet
The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds
EX-“A land laid waste with all its young men slain” repeats the same “a” sound in “laid,” “waste,” and “slain.”
A series of words separated by commas, with no conjunction where there should be
EX-“I came, I saw, I conquered” is an example of asyndeton.
Trying to establish that something is true because everyone believes it to be true
A preference or inclination for one side of an issue, either for it or against it
Story that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity.
Blank Verse
Unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
A literary work that makes its subject appear ridiculous. Ex: Don Quixote
A pause in rhythm or meter in a poem
The process by which an unhealthy emotional state, produced by an imbalance of feelings, is corrected and emotional health is restored
Causal relationship (cause and effect)
A writer asserts that one thing results from another. It shows how one thing produces another.
learn about characters from
Readers learn about characters from: what they say (dialogue), what they do (action), what they think (interior monologue), what others say about them, and through the author’s direct statements.
Flat character
A character that emphasizes a single important trait
Round character
A complex, fully rounded personality, a three dimensional character
Static character
A character that changes little over the course of a narrative. Things happen to these characters, but little happens in them.
Dynamic character
A character that changes in response to the actions through which he/she passes
Character who gives the protagonist advice and friendship
Absent Character
A character who is referred to but who is not part of the action or does not appear in the novel
A character who is level-headed and provides reason
Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y /Y X. It is often short and summarizes a main idea.
EX-“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” From John Kennedy’s inaugural speech
Unusual or surprising comparison between two very different things (special kind of metaphor or complicated analogy)
Concrete language
Language that describes specific, observable things, people, or places rather than ideas or qualities
The repetition of a consonant sound within a series of words to produce a harmonious effect
EX-A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch; and blue spurt of a lighted match. The “p” and the “t” sounds are in consonance and imitate the sounds mentioned in the two lines.
Damning with faint praise
The argument “attacks” a position by complimenting or praising the opponent or the opponent’s argument. However, the praise is misdirected or unenthusiastic, suggesting that relevant, enthusiastic praise would be undeserved
the dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to connotation
The facts, revealed by the author or speaker, that support the attitude or tone
Deus ex machina
An act of the gods; Ex: Swords appear out of nowhere when they are needed
Devices of sound
The techniques of deploying the sound of words, especially in poetry. Among devices of sound are rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, and onomatopoeia. The devices create a general effect of pleasant or of discordant sound, they imitate another sound, or they reflect a meaning.
Word choice intended to convey a certain effect
A type of fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral and provides a model of correct behavior or thinking
A temporary departure from the main subject
A wailing song used to commemorate death
A formal sustained poem lamenting the death of a person
En Media Res
The novel begins when the action of the story has already begun
End-stopped Line
Ending a phrase at the end of the line of poetry
The continuing of a phrase over the end of the line of poetry