Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/71

Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abstract Language
: Describes ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places. It is usually described in concrete language
Ad homonym
Latin for “against the man.” A writer personally attacks his or her opponents instead of their arguments.
Ad populum
Latin for “to the crowd.” A fallacy of logic in which the widespread occurrence of something is assumed to make it true
Allegory
A story in which people, things, and events have another meaning
EX- Orwell’s Animal Farm. The animals represent the leaders of the Russian Revolution
Alliteration
The repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, normally at the beginning of words
EX-In Romeo and Juliet, “I’ll look to like if looking liking move.”
Allusion
A reference to something in history or literature, especially mythology or Biblical
EX- In Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio refers to Dido, Cleopatra, Helen, and Hero and Thisbe.
Ambiguity
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way
Anachronism
Assignment of something to a time when it was not in existence
EX-The striking of the clock in Julius Caesar
Anadiplosis
A kind of repetition in which the last word or phrase of one sentence or line is repeated at the beginning of the next
EX-For I have love long, I crave reward,
Reward me not unkindly; think of kindness
Analogy
A comparison to a directly parallel case
Anaphora
Deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs
EX-Winston Churchill’s “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields” speech.
Anecdote
A brief recounting of a relevant episode
Annotation
Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data
Antagonist
An important opponent of the main character or protagonist
EX-In To Kill a Mockingbird, the antagonist is Bob Ewell
Antimetabole
The repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order, much like chiasmus, the difference being that the words are repeated
EX-One should eat to live, not live to eat
Antithesis
A balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses
Apostrophe
Direct address, usually to someone or something that is not present or is not alive
EX-In Romeo and Juliet, “Oh deadly sin! O rude unthankfulness!
Archetype
A character, action, or situation that is a prototype or pattern of human life; a situation that occurs over and over again in literature, such as a quest, an initiation, or an attempt to overcome evil. Many myths are archetypes. Two common types of archetypes are setting and character.
Argumentation
Exploring of a problem by investigating all sides of it; persuasion through reason
Induction
A form of reasoning which works from a body of facts to the formulation of a generalization. It is the opposite of deduction
EX-If all the people you've ever met from a particular town have been very strange, you might then say, "All the residents of this town are strange.”
Deduction
A form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, then applies it to a specific case
EX-All the men in a certain room are bakers, all bakers get up early to bake bread in the morning, and Jim is in that specific room. Knowing these statements to be true, a person could deductively reason that Jim gets up early in the morning
Ethos
A writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on presentation of image of self through text. Reputation is sometimes a factor in ethical appeals, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience’s confidence.
Pathos
Qualities of a fictional or non-fictional work that evoke sorrow or pity. Over-emotionalism can be the result of an excess of pathos
Logos
: Human reasoning which seeks to attain universal understanding and harmony
Classification
Identifies the subject as a part of a larger group with shared features
Comparison
Based on the assumption that a subject may be shown more clearly by pointing out ways it is similar to something else
Contrast
Based on the assumption that a subject may be shown more clearly by pointing out ways in which it is unlike another subject
Time
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The play has to take place within a 24-hour period. Antigone takes place in “real” time; the audience experiences the action as it happens/unfolds
Place
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The action of the play is set in one place. Antigone is set in front of the royal palace in Thebes
Action
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
There is one hero and one plot. The action in Antigone focuses on Antigone’s determination to bury her brother Polyneices and the consequences of her actions.
Recognition
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
As the hero meets his catastrophe, he recognizes his flaw and why he must die. In Antigone, Creon admits his responsibility in the deaths of his family and confesses he was too proud.
Reversal
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The opposite of what the hero intends occurs. In Antigone, Creon thinks he is doing the right thing by imprisoning Antigone, but this action leads to the suicides of his family.
Hamartia
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The tragic flaw that leads to the hero’s downfall. In Antigone, Creon’s tragic flaw of holding himself above the prophets and the laws of the gods dooms him.
Catharsis
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
The release of emotion (pity or fear) from the audience’s perspective. After watching Antigone, the audience will feel pity for the tragic deaths and fear for themselves because if even the “best” in society fall, what future awaits the common man?
Hubris
(Aristotle’s Rules for Tragedy)
Arrogance before the gods. In Antigone, Creon’s pride and arrogance cause his downfall
Aside
: A dramatic convention where the actor directly addresses the audience but is not supposed to be heard by the other actors on the stage
EX-In the garden under Juliet’s balcony, Romeo addresses the audience as he speaks of his love for Juliet
Assonance
The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds
EX-“A land laid waste with all its young men slain” repeats the same “a” sound in “laid,” “waste,” and “slain.”
Asyndeton
A series of words separated by commas, with no conjunction where there should be
EX-“I came, I saw, I conquered” is an example of asyndeton.
Bandwagon
Trying to establish that something is true because everyone believes it to be true
Bias
A preference or inclination for one side of an issue, either for it or against it
Bildungsroman
Story that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity.
Blank Verse
Unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
Burlesque
A literary work that makes its subject appear ridiculous. Ex: Don Quixote
Caesura
A pause in rhythm or meter in a poem
Catharsis
The process by which an unhealthy emotional state, produced by an imbalance of feelings, is corrected and emotional health is restored
Causal relationship (cause and effect)
A writer asserts that one thing results from another. It shows how one thing produces another.
learn about characters from
Readers learn about characters from: what they say (dialogue), what they do (action), what they think (interior monologue), what others say about them, and through the author’s direct statements.
Flat character
A character that emphasizes a single important trait
Round character
A complex, fully rounded personality, a three dimensional character
Static character
A character that changes little over the course of a narrative. Things happen to these characters, but little happens in them.
Dynamic character
A character that changes in response to the actions through which he/she passes
Confidant
Character who gives the protagonist advice and friendship
Absent Character
A character who is referred to but who is not part of the action or does not appear in the novel
Raisonneur
A character who is level-headed and provides reason
Chiasmus
Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y /Y X. It is often short and summarizes a main idea.
EX-“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” From John Kennedy’s inaugural speech
Conceit
Unusual or surprising comparison between two very different things (special kind of metaphor or complicated analogy)
Concrete language
Language that describes specific, observable things, people, or places rather than ideas or qualities
Consonance
The repetition of a consonant sound within a series of words to produce a harmonious effect
EX-A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch; and blue spurt of a lighted match. The “p” and the “t” sounds are in consonance and imitate the sounds mentioned in the two lines.
Damning with faint praise
The argument “attacks” a position by complimenting or praising the opponent or the opponent’s argument. However, the praise is misdirected or unenthusiastic, suggesting that relevant, enthusiastic praise would be undeserved
Denotation
the dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to connotation
Details
The facts, revealed by the author or speaker, that support the attitude or tone
Deus ex machina
An act of the gods; Ex: Swords appear out of nowhere when they are needed
Devices of sound
The techniques of deploying the sound of words, especially in poetry. Among devices of sound are rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, and onomatopoeia. The devices create a general effect of pleasant or of discordant sound, they imitate another sound, or they reflect a meaning.
Diction
Word choice intended to convey a certain effect
Didactic
A type of fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral and provides a model of correct behavior or thinking
Digression
A temporary departure from the main subject
Dirge
A wailing song used to commemorate death
Elegy
A formal sustained poem lamenting the death of a person
En Media Res
The novel begins when the action of the story has already begun
End-stopped Line
Ending a phrase at the end of the line of poetry
Enjambment
The continuing of a phrase over the end of the line of poetry