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115 Cards in this Set

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Accent
When a syllable is given a greater amount of force in speaking than is given to another, also called a stress
Alexandrine
In English verse, a line of iambic hexameter, usually having a caesura after the thrid foot
Allegory
A narrative in either verse or prose in which characters, events, and in some cases setting, represent abstract concepts apart from the literal meaning of the story
Alliteration
The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or within them, especially in accented syllables
Allusion
An indirect reference to a person, place, or thing - fictitious, historical, or actual
Analogy
A comparison made between two objects, situations, or ideas that share something in common but are otherwise totally different
Anapest
a metrical foot consisting of three syllables, two unaccented followed by one accented
Anaphora
The repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses, verses, or paragraphs
Antagonist
a character in a story or play that opposes the protagonist
Apostrophe
a figure of speech in which a character or narrator directly addresses an abstract concept, an inanimate object, or a person who is not present
Assonance
the repetition of similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables or words, like alliteration, assonance may occur either initially or internally
Ballad
A narrative song or poem passed on orally
Blank verse
verse written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Caesura
a light but definite pause within a line of poetry
Catharsis
the purification of emotions by vicarious experience, especially through drama
Characterization
the methods used by an author to develop the personality of a character in a literary work
Chiasmus
a rhetorical device in which words or phrases initially presented are restated in reverse order, for example: "do not live to eat, but eat to live"
Chorus
in ancient Greek drama, a group of actors who sang and danced in unison and provided commentary on the actions of the main characters
Cliche
a trite or hackneyed expression, idea, plot, character development, etc.
climax
a decisive moment that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot; a point when the action changes course and begins to resolve itself in some manner
comedy
a play written primarily to amuse the audience, usually featuring a protagonist whose fortunes take a turn for the better
comic relief
an amusing scene, incident, character, or speech introduced into a serious or tragic work to relieve tension
conceit
an elaborate, extended, and often surprising comparison made between two very dissimilar things that exhibits the author's ingenuity and cleverness; (from the Italian "concetto" meaning concept, bright idea)
concrete poem
a poem in which the visual arrangement of the letters and words suggests its meaning
conflict
a struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem; a conflict can be internal or external
types of conflicts
1 - person against person
2 - person against nature
3 - person against society
4 - person against himself
connotation
the emotional associations that surround a word as opposed to its denotation
consonance
the repetition of consonant sounds that are preceded by a different vowel
couplet
two successive lines of verse that have the same meter and in many cases rhyme
dactyl
a 3-syallable metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
declining action
falling action
denotation
the literal meaning of a word, dictionary definition
denouement
the resolution of the plot of a literary work
deus ex machina
power, event, person, or thing that comes in the nick of time to solve a difficulty, Latin for "the god from the machine"
dialect
variety of language spoken by a social group or in a certain locality
dialogue
conversation, can serve many purposes, including characterization, advancement of the plot, development of a theme, and creation of mood
diction
the author's choice of words and phrases: involves both connotation and denotation
Didactic poetry
poetry whose purpose is to teach the reader some kind of lesson
dramatic irony
a situation in which the author and the audience share knowledge by which they can recognize that the character's actions are inappropriate or that the charcater's words have a significance but these things are unknown to the character
dramatic monologue
a lyric poem in which the speaker addresses someone whose replies are not recorded; the poet adopts the voice of a fictive or historical voice or some other persona
dramatic situation
a situation that drives the plot of a drama that involves the dynamic relation between a character and a goal or objective and the obstacles that intervene between the character and the objective
dynamic character
a character that changes in some way, usually for the better, during the course of a story
elegy
a lament or a sadly meditative poem, sometimes written on the occasion of a death; usually formal in language and structure and solemn or melancholy in tone
end rhyme
rhyming of words at the ends of lines of poetry
end-stopped line
a line of poetry that contains a complete thought, usually ending with a period, colon, or semicolon, and therefore ends in a full pause; the opposite of a run-on line
English or Shakespearean sonnet
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter haveing a rhyme scheme of abab/cdcd/efef/gg; is usually presented in a four-part structure in which a theme or idea is developed in the first three quatrains and then is brought to a conclusion in the couplet
enjambment
the employment of run-on lines of poetry, whereby the meaning of the statement is carried from one line to the next without a pause
epic
a long narrative poem describing the deeds of a great hero, gread adventrues, and matters of national or global significance and sometimes featuring supernatural forces
epigram
a short poem that ends in a witty or ingenious turn of thought, to which the rest of the composition is intended to lead up
epigraph
a motto or quotation at the beginning of a book, poem, or chapter that usually indicates its theme
epiphany
a moment of enlightenment in which the underlying truth or essential nature of something is suddenly revealed or made clear to a character
epistolary
associated with letters or the writing of letters; for example an epistolary poem is a letter written in verse
eye rhyme
rhyme in which two or more words look the same and are spelled similarly but have different pronunciations, for example, "have" and "grave" also called sight rhyme
falling action
in a narrative, action that occurs after the climax and directly before the denouement or the resolution of the plot
farce
a highly comic, light-hearted drama, usually involving stock situations and characters and based on far-fetched hmorous situations
feminine ending
an unaccented syllable at the end of a line of poetry
feminine rhyme
a rhyme in which the similarity of sound is in both of the last two syllables, for exmample, "weary" and "dreary"
foil
a person or thing that highlights the traits of a character by contrast
foot
a division of verse consisting of a number of syllables, one of which has the principal stress, the basic unit of meter in poetry
framed story
a narrative device whereby a story or group of stories is presented (often told by one of the characters) within the framework of a larger narrative
free verse
poetry that does not have a fixed meter or rhyme scheme
half-rhyme
slant rhyme
heroic couplet
2 rhymed lines of iambic pentameter
high comedy
a comedy that appeals to the intellect using verbal wit, a clever plot, and visual elegance, usually having upper-class characters
Iamb
a metrical foot consisting of two syllables, the first unaccented, the second accented
Iambic pentameter
poetry consisting of a line of five iambs, the most common verse line in English poetry, a meter especially familiar because it occurs in all blank verse, heroic couplets, and sonnets
in medias res
Latin meaning "in the middle of thins" narratives that begin in the middle of the action
internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line of poetry
irony
the contrast between what appears to be and reality
Italian or Petrarchan sonnet
a 14-line poem in two parts, an initial octet (8 lines) followed by a sestet (6 lines) usually having a rhyme scheme of abbaabba/cdecde, the octet and the sestet are usually played off each other in some way
limerick
a 5-line comic verse form with a rhyme scheme of aabba, with the first, second, and fifth lines in trimeter and the third and fourth in dimeter
litotes
a type of understanding in whcih an affirmative is expressed by the negation of its opposite; for example "this is no small problem"
low comedy
comic actions based on broad physical humor, scatology, crude punning, and the argumentative behavior or ignorant and often lower-class characters
lyric
a poem that expresses an emotion or state of mind, creating a single, highly personal impression upon the reader
masculine ending
an accented syllable that ends a line of verse
masculine rhyme
a rhyme of one-syllable words (jail and bail) or of stressed final syllables (divorce and remorse)
melodrama
a sensational nineteenth-century play that featured a suspenseful, plot-oriented drama with all-good heroes, all-bad villains, simplistic dialogue, and soaring moral conclusions
meter
a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry
metonymy
a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (the use of the word "Washington" to mean the U.S. government)
microcosm
in literature, refers to a model in which events on a miniature scale parallel those occurring on a larger scale; for example, conflict within a family might be a microcosm of a world at war
mood
the overall atmosphere or prevailing emotional aura of a literary work
near rhyme
slant rhyme
ode
a formal, ceremonious, and complexly organized form of lyric poetry; odes are usually rather long and often commemorate an important event or celebration such as a marriage or public ceremony
off rhyme
slant rhyme
partial rhyme
slant rhyme
pastoral
a conventional form of lyric poetry that presents an idealized view of rural life
pathos
that quality in speech, writing, music, or artistic representation that excites feelings of pity or sadness, the power of stirring tender or melancholy emotion
peripeteia
a sudden change of events or a reversal of circumstances
persona
the mask or voice of the author or the author's creation n a literary work
pyrrhic
metrical foot of two unaccented syllables
quatrain
stanza of four lines of verse
return
falling action
rhythm
the recurrence of stresses and pauses in the language of a literary owrk or a speech, when rhythm falls into a regular, identifiable pattern, we refer to it as meter
romance
a narrative form that originated in the Middle Ages that can be written in prose or poetry, generally feature elements such as adventure, magic, and love
run-on line
a line of verse that does not express a complete thought, but rather, the thought continues on to the next line and there is no pause at the end of the run-on line
scansion
the process of demarking the metrical feet of a poem and marking the accented and unaccented symbols to indicate the meter of the poem
sestina
a complicated verse form comprised of six sestets and a concluding tercet, with the end words of each line of the first sestet being repeated in the subsequent stanzas
sight rhyme
eye rhyme
situational irony
an occurrence that is contrary to what is expected or intended
slant rhyme
two words or syllables that have approximately the same vowel sounds but not exactly
soliloquy
a dramatic convention whereby a character speaks his or her thoughts aloud; a speech to oneself
sonnet
a 14-line poem, written in iambic pentameter
spondee
a metrical foot consisting of two accented syllables
static character
a character that does not change during the course of a narrative
stock character
a character that is of little consequence to the dramatic situations and its ultimate resolution, but who nonetheless may serve to advance the plot, provide humore, or provide contrast with the main character
style
the distinctive use of language by the author
symbolist drama
one product of a late 19th century school of French poets/playwrights who aimed to reveal ideas and emotions by indirect suggestion rather than by direct expression and attached a symbolic meaning to particular objects, words, sonnets, etc.
synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole; the whole of something is used to represent a part; the specific is used for the general; the general is used for the specific; or the material of an object is used in place of the object (hired hands)
synesthesia
the manner of speaking about one sense in terms of another (she wore a screaming red skirt)
tone
the author's attitude, whether stated or implied, about his or her subject matter and toward the audience
tragic flaw
in a tragedy, the flaw in the protagonist that leads to his or her downfall
tragic irony
refers to instances in a tragedy when the protagonist experiences a misfortune that is contrary to what he or she expected to happen
tragicomedy
a drama that combines elements of tragedy and comedy
trochee
a metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
villanelle
a poetic form that usually is comprised of five tercets, each rhyming aba, and a concluding quatrain, rhyming abaa, with the first and third lines of the first tercet alternating as refrains throughout the poem