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128 Cards in this Set

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Tone
The writer or speaker's attitude toward a subject
Organization of Ideas
the structure of a piece or literature
Author's Message
The motivation or experience suggested by the literary work
Diction
The word choices within the work and the attitude implied by word choice
Syntax
The sentence structure an author uses and the relationship among diction, structure, treatment of subject matter and figurative language
Rhetorical Purpose
The assertion or direction of a literary piece
Genre
The overall relationship between message and the literary type
Absolute
1. word or phrase isolated syntactically
Example: After having played,
2. implied transitive verb
Example: We have a teacher who inspires
3. Adjective or prounoun standing alone
Example: theirs
Acrimonious
Bitter and sharp in language and tone
Example: bitter about the divorce
Adhominem
"by man"- a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of an irrelevant fact presented by the author, addressed to principles, interests, personal passion sof men
Example:
(1) Person A makes a claim= Jones said it.
(2) Person B attacks= But Jones is a thief.
(3) Therefore, A is wrong= then Jones is wrong.
Ad populum appeal
argument supports a position by appealing to the shared opinion of a large group of people
Example: "The most widely sold", "America's favorite" "Do you not consider yourself already refused, Socrates, when you put forward view that nobody would accept? Why, ask anyone present" (Plato, Gorgious)
Ad verecundium
Based on authority
Allegory
an extended narrative in whcih characters or events represent abstract qualities and the writer intends a second meaning to be read below the surface of the story
Alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds of words or within words
Example: Swift swans swim
Allusion
a passing reference to something the writer assumes the reader will recognize.
Types- mythological, classical, Shakespearean, historical, biblical
Example: A Separate Peace: Finny compared to Lazarus (biblical)
Ambivalent
uncertainty or fluctuation, especially when caused by an inability to make a choice or by a simultaneous desire to say or do two opposite things
Example: Tess' response to Angel's marriage proposal
Analogy
a comparison of similar things, often for the purpose of using something familiar to explain something unfamiliar
Example: Workings of the heart:pump
Anaphora
a repetition of words/phrases at the beginning of several successful clauses or paragraphs
Example: Churchill- "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills.
Anecdote
a brief narrative of an entertaining and presumably true incident
Example: biographical writing
Antithesis
1. opposing ideas balanced by parallel syntax
Example: There is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, and no slave who has not had a king among his.
2. Dialectic argument, statement of opposing viewpoint
Example: Thesis: The money should be used to build a new gym.
Antithesis: NO, the money should be spent on an auditorium.
Synthesis: Let's build a new gymnasium and make the old gym into an auditorium
Aphorism
a terse statement of a principle or truth, usually an observation about life, a maxim
Example: Life is not always fair
Apostrophe
the device of calling out to an abstract or absent person or object to begin or dramatically pause a poem
Example: Carlyle's "O Liberty, what things are done in my name!"l John Milton's Paradise Lost: Sing, Heavenly Muse!
Apothegm
a short, pithy saying, an aphorism
Example: Life is short
Argumentum ad hominem
a fallacy that involves replying to an argument or assertion by attempting to discredit a person
Types: ad hominem abusive/circumstantial
Asyndeton
the omission of conjunctions from constructions in which they would normally be used
Example: Shakespeare "Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils/shrunk to this little measure?"
Axilomatic
aphoristic, self-evident
Example: "It's axilomatic in politics that voters won't throw out a presidential incumbent unless they think his challenger will clean house"- Grier
Characterization
the methods used by an author to create characters
5 methods: appearance, speech, actions, thoughts (or feelings), other character's reactions
Chiasmus
a form of antithesis in which the second half of the statement inverts the word order of the first half
Example: It is not the heart which seeks the mind; it is the mind which seeks the heart.
Colloquial speech
common/vernacular language, words or phrases in everyday use in conversational or informal writing but inappropriate in a formal essay
Example: Contractions, a lot, etc.
Concrete details
facts, quotes, evidence, support
Example: Essay on Billy Budd: Claggart had no choice over who he was, born in such a way that he could not escape. Melville's diction of "inherently evil" reveals this inescapable fate.
Conflict
a problem or struggle between 2 opposing forces
Internal- man vs self, External- man vs. man, nature, society, unknown
Connotative diction
using words beyond their meaning
Example: white angel implies a good angel
Convoluted logic
complicated (unnecessarily), intricate, tangled language
Example: Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Deferential
exhibiting submission or yielding to others
Example: a religious deference to a priest or even God
Didactic
a morally instructive work
Example: Bacon's essays, Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress", fables
Digression
a portion of a speech or written phrase that interrupts the development of the theme or plot
Example: Dickens
Dogmatic
adhering to a specific and prescribed doctrine
Example: Orthodox religion
Equivocal statements
ambiguous; capable of double interpretation
Example: "If you cross the Halys, you will destroy a great empire" ends up destroying his own empire, rather than another's. (Different interpretation)
Elaborate analogy
extended metaphor
Example: The body is a unit, though it is made up of many parts; and t hough all parts are many, they form one body. 1 Cor 12:12
Hyperbole
Obvious exaggeration not intended literally but for figurative or humorous effect.
Example: All men are absolutely equal.
Elegiac
an expression of sorrow for a past occurrence
Example: Whitman's When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd
Ellipsis
three dots (...) used to omit material in quotes
Example: "The three visitors...were pleased with their stay"
Note: 4 dots are used at the end of the phrase if words are omitted
Entreaty plea
earnest request or petition
Example: Tess' pleas to Alec to leave her alone
Euphemistic
an inoffensive substitute for offensive terminology
Example: with child= pregnant, put to sleep=kill, laid off= to lose a job, in reduced circumstances=poverty
Euphuism
affected, excessive, artificial style
Example: John Lyly's Euphues
Existentialist
philosophy focusing on the individual being's experience of, recognition of, and triumph over the meaningless of existence
Example: Sartre, Beowulf
Fawning
to seek favor by flattery and obsequious behavior
Fatalistic
doctrine that all events are determined by fate
Example: Calvinistic predetermination
Figurative language
language expanded beyond its ordinary literal meaning
Flashback
an interruption to a story to present an earlier event
Flippant
lacking proper seriousness or respect, dismissing
Example: calling a respected elder by first name/nickname
Foreshadow
hints or clues that suggest or prepare for events that occur later in a work
Example: two automobile accidents foreshadow the death of Myrtle Wilson in The Great Gatsby
Generalization
a broad view that can be applied overall
Example: The Romantics viewed feeling over reason.
Gregarious
sociable, outgoing, enjoying each other's company
Example: "a gregarious person who avoids solitude
Hedonistic
overly dramatic exaggerated, artificial speech
Example: Alec's taunting of Tess
Histrionic
overly dramatic exaggerated, artificial speech
Example: Alec's taunting of Tess
Humanistic philosophy
Christian Renaissance
Example: Erasmus
Idealistic Pursuits
aiming for a utopian goal
Example: wanting a perfect marriage
Imagery
Concrete details appealing to the senses
Imperative
A command
Example: Don't cross the street!
Indirect allusion
indirect reference
Example: Without naming names, the candidate criticized national leaders by allusion.
Inference
a reasonable conclusion drawn by the reader from actual clues
Ingratiating
to bring into the favor of good graces of another, especially by deliberate effort
Example: the actions of a teacher's pet
Insinuating
to imply, introduce artfully, hint
Example: to insinuate wrong ideas
Invective
vehement denunciation, insulting
Example: invective remark
Inversion
reversing the normal order of sentence parts
Example: Never have I seen him in such a good mood.
Irony
the recognition of the difference between appearance and reality
a. socratic- feigned ignorance of a p.o.v. to rotate arguments
b. verbal- contrast in what is said and what is meant
c. situational- contrast between what is intended and occurs
d. dramatic- the audience knows what characters do not
Example: Hamlet's catastrophe
Jocular
given to or characterized by joking or jesting
Example: When the trecle was spilled in Tess
Laconic
using or marked by few words, terse, concise
Example: a laconic reply
Litotes
A figure of speech, a form of ironical statement that affirms something by stating the negative of its opposite
Metaphor
an implied comparison between 2 different things
Example: Life is but a dream.
Metonymy
a figure of speech that substitutes the name of a related object, person, or idea at hand
Example: Crown for monarchy; White House for President
Mood
the overall feeling in a work of art or literature
Moralistic philosophy
philosophy dealing with the principles of morality; ethics
Example: Tess: the definition of purity and honesty
Nihilistic
traditional values and beliefs are unfounded and existence is senseless and useless, everything ends in nothing
Example: Dragon's philosophy in Grendel
Non-sequitir
unrelated, cause & effect relationship illogical
Example. People who look different are inferior.
Onomatopoeia
a literary device wherein the sound of the word echoes what it represents
Example: splash, knock, roar, hiss
Orthodox
traditional, genuine
Example: Orthodox Christianity
Oxymoron
a figure of speech in which 2 contradictory words or phrases are combined in a single expression
Example: "wise fool", "living death"
Paradox
a statement that while apparently self-contradictory is nonetheless true
Example: Man loves to hate himself,
Paradox
a statement that while apparently self-contradictory is nonetheless true
Example: Man loves to hate himself,
Parallel phrase
parallel in subject, sometimes in idea
Example: He dictates, files, and writes
Parallelism
compound verbs or verbal expressions show an action taking place at the same time or in the same tense (same tense w/ same tense)
Example: She enjoys dancing and signing. I like to dance more than I like to sing.
A great example is the Declaration of Independence
Participle phrase
Beginning with gerunds (-ing words)
Example: Jumping with joy
Paternal
Fatherly
Example: "providing for the young is a paternal instinct"
Pathetic fallacy
nonhuman characteristic in nature; a fallacy of human reason suggesting nonhuman phenomena act from human feelings
Example: weeping streams
Patronize
to behave in an offensively condescending manner towards
Example: Of course it's not your fault.
Personification
a figure of speech in which human characteristics and sensibilities are attributed to animals, plants, inanimate objects, natural forces, or abstract ideas
Example: The wind whispers a tale of that night; Carl Sandburg's desc. of Chicago includes shoulders
Persuasion (Ethos, Pathos, Logos)
Persuasion
Ethos- ethics, credentials
Pathos- emotion, sympathy, empathy
Logos- logic
Example: Martin Luther King's Letters from the Birmingham Jail
Petulant
showing sudden irritation, esp. over some trifling annoyance, peevish
Example: screaming over an assignment deadline
Perusing
to read through with thoroughness and detail
Example: Eager to learn all he could about his family history, he perused the articles and journals before him.
Pious
dutiful spirit or reverence OR a hypocritical concern with virtue or religious devotion
Example: hypocritical: Alec D'Urberville
Plot
a sequence of events to bring about the resolution of a conflict
Introduction (conflict/setting/characters), rising action, climax, falling action, resolution
Point-of-view
the author's choice of narrator
-First person- the narrator is a character in a story
-Third person- the narrator is outside of the story
-Objective- reports only speech and actions
-Omniscient- reports speech, action, and thoughts
Point-of-view
the author's choice of narrator
-First person- the narrator is a character in a story
-Third person- the narrator is outside of the story
-Objective- reports only speech and actions
-Omniscient- reports speech, action, and thoughts
Polysyndeton
repetition of conjunctions in close succession
Example: Here and there and everywhere
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
the order of events proves causation
Example: (1) A occurs before B
(2) Therefore, A is the cause of B
Pragmatic
practical considerations or consequences
Example: Pragmatic Sanction
Predicate adjective
an adjective used to predicate an attribute of the subject
Example: Roses are red
Prepositional phrase
a group of words including a preposition and a noun that cannot stand alone
Example: at the door
Pun
a form of wit not necessarily funny involving a play on word with two meanings.
Example: Romeo and Juliet: "Ask for me tomorrow and you will find me a grave man", said the day before he is killed
Reducto Ad Absurdum
refutation on the grounds of absurdity (self-contradiction, falsehood, implausability)
Example: "It's always sunny and warm in Illinois" (while there's a foot of snow outside)
Repetition
the continuous use of a word
Example: He played basketball and played soccer
Reverential
expressing proud respect or awe
Example: Coleridge: "Reverence, which is the synthesis of love and fear
Reverse chronology
events told in an opposite order from their occurrence
Example: As I Lay Dying, My Antonia
Rhetorical question
question asked to invoke thought or provoke reaction from the audience without intended response
Example: Has the sun not risen everyday?
Rhetorical question
question asked to invoke thought or provoke reaction from the audience without intended response
Example: Has the sun not risen everyday?
Rhyme
the repetition of syllable sounds
Rhythm
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Sanctimonious
feigning piety or righteousness
Example: Twain: "a solemn, unsmiling, sanctimonious old iceberg that looked like he was waiting for a vacancy in the Trinity
Sanguine
cheerfully confident, optimistic
Example: Sanguine of success
Sarcastic
expressing contempt or bitterness through imagery
Example: Yeah, Hitler's a really nice guy. He even looks it...
Sardonic
characterized by a scornful derision or bitter irony
Example: sardonic grin
Satire
a literary work in which the author ridicules the vices or follies of people or society, usually to produce some action or change in attitude
Simile
a figure of speech using like, as, or as if to compare 2 essentially different objects, actions, or attributes that share some aspect of similarity
Example: Life is like a box of chocolates.
Solicitous
expressing care or concern
Example: family
Stereotype
a broad generalization about something or someone that leaves no room for individual difference
Stoic
One indifferent to emotion (pleasure, pain); opposite of hedonistic and Epicurean
Example: Jewel in As I Lay Dying, Spartans
Brutus in Julius Caesar
Syllepsis
1. use of a word to govern 2 or more words but agreeing in number or case to only one
2. a figure of speech where a word is used literally and metaphorically at the same time
Example: My family, as well as I, is happy.
He was driving his care carelessly and his wife crazy.
Syllogism
transitive theory
Example:
(1) Everything that lives, moves.
(2) No mountain moves.
(3) Therefore, no mountain lives.
Symbol
anything that signifies or stands for something else
Example: Heart and Salamander, Farenheit 451, the whale, Moby Dick
Synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part of something stands for the whole thing
Example: I've got wheels.
Synaesthesia
a rhetorical trope involving shifts of imagery; involves taking one type of sensory output (sight, smell, etc.) and comingling it with another in an impossible way
Example: blue note, coll green, heavy silence
Tautology
1. needless repetition of an idea in different words
Example: "widow woman"
2. a compound proposition or propositional form all of whose instances are true
Example: A or not A, the Candidate will win or lose.
Theme
the main idea
Tone
author's attitude, stated or implied, towards a subject
Ultimatum
a final demand or set of terms issued by a party to a dispute
Example: Unless you are willing to give up your position or reconcile on our terms, the team will vote to kick you out.
Understatement
a type of verbal irony in which something is purposely represented as being far less important than it actually is (also called meiosis)
Example: Tess of the D'Urbervilles: Her acquaintance with Alec