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56 Cards in this Set

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Original sin is stressed...limited free will.
Puritanism
Things of "this world" are evil; only things "of God" or of "the next life" are good.
Puritanism
Man is basically evil...basically sinful by nature.
Puritanism.
the theory of "the elect" and predestination
puritanism
Themes: guilt, the evil of sin, the importance of hard work, loyalty, obedience.
puritanism
Nature (the forest and unexplored regions) is dark and evil place of Satan and his demons.
puritanism
External status is an indication of a person's internal worth
puritanism
God's providential influence, or intervention,into day to day affairs
puritanism
1600s to 1750 in eastern coast
puritanism
1750-1810
Rationalism
the universe is understandable and man-centered, not God-centered.
Rationalism
Authority of reason over divine revelation; importance of reason over traditional institutional authority (church, law, schools, government).
Rationalism
Scientific laws govern the universe. These laws can be discovered by reason. this understanding will therefore continually improve man and society
rationalism
man is basically good.
rationalism
Themes: importance of reason and science, importance of man as an individual(importance as an individual rather than as part of a congregation, political unit, social group,etc.). Freedom of thought, inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of property and happiness, perfectibility of man and his institutions, inevitability of progress, the goodness of a kind God, free will.
rationalism
subset of rationalism, and approah to religion rather than literature
deism
a good God exists who operates through natural laws, not divine intervention.
deism
man has free willo, even God cannot dictate man's thoughts.
deism
man, through education and reason, can fully understand all of God's universal laws.
deism
rejects christ's divinity, the Trinity, the Bible as infallible, and all miracles which cannot be explained through universal scientific laws. also rejects predestination
deism
1810-1860 (civil war)
romanticism
imagination and intuition stressed over reason. importance of emotion and wonder.
romanticism
more emphasis on free will and the individual. anti-authoritarian; anti-institutional
romanticism
individual man or woman as God like and divine nature
romanticism
all truth and beauty are revealed in nature...back to nature... the noble savage (indian, mountain man,etc.)
romanticism
stress on idealized past (good old days)
romanticism
innocence of children, animals, and all rural life; they are closest to God and nature
romanticism
themes: emotion, intuition, wonder and beauty of nature, inner working of man, free will, back to nature, "rugged individualism." "right" as more important than any law.
romanticism
subset of romanticism
transcendentalism
similar to Oriental religions, man can transcend everyday experience of reasoning by looking inward to find/recieve higher truths from the divine inner soul
transcendentalism
harmony and unity of all life (plants, animal, humans, spirit "oversoul" of the world).
transcendentalism
reincarnation through all forms/levels of life until reunited with the world "oversoul"
transcendentalism
other themes: spiritual reality of all things (even inanimate things) spirit over matter
transcendentalism
the earliest advocates of such causes as feminism, women's liberation, abolitionism, utopianism, communal living, labor unions, etc.
transcendentalism
1860-current
realism
stresses the here and now--literature as holding a "mirror to life," reflection of life
realism
stress on character and setting rather than stressing plot
realism
themes: end of the ftontier, urbanization, thch nology, war, anti-sentimentality, industrialization, day to day conflicts of everyday life.
realism
greatly influenced by the Civil War, transcontinental railroad, horseless carriage, sewing machine, trans-Atlantic cable, "invention" of the assembly line.
realism
subset of realism
regionalism
stress on "local color" dialects, local mannerisms, habits of particular geographical area. Local pride, ways of dress, local traditions, unique characters, New England swpinster, mining camp haggard gold diggers, mountain man, Yukon miner, hillbilly,etc
regionalism
concern with day to day life of regionally unique character types
regionalism
2nd subset of realism
naturalism
stress on determinism: that events are "determined" by heredity and environment which a person can do very little about--social Darwinism
naturalism
characters are often primitive, violent, animalistic--emphasis on man's passions
naturalism
attempt by author to be scientifically objective, but often is pessimistic
naturalism
realism and science greatly influenced by darwin, marc, freud, types of determinism
naturalism
life as a constant stuggle fo survival, man as caught in a vicious trap )environment and heredity) in an indifferent world (no supernatural intervention available).
naturalism
emphasis on man's instincts, drives, passions, desires, over which man has little or no understanding or control. importance of chance (or luck) as crucial in one's life.
naturalism
world war one until present
existentialism
name itself comes from the idea that human life is understandable only in terms of one's personal, individual experiences or existence.
existentialism
the individual's encounter with nothingness is emphasized. Modern man is isolated from God, nature, his fellow man, and from one's self
existentialism
there are no ideal moral values outside the self. So individuals must make their own choices, based on the values they choose personally in an indifferent world. There are no ideal morals to be found
existentialism
events an incidents and things have no sense or meaning in themseves. things that surround one are simply there, grotesque, huge, stubborn, and meaningless.
existentialism
definitons are often found in incident in literature, such as in joseph heller's "Catch-22", which presents situation where there is no meaning in a relationship between man and the world
existentialism
Jean Paul Sartre (1964, age 64, turned doun Novel Prize for Lit.) explained in this way: "man can count on no one but himself: he is alone, abandoned on earth in the midst of his infinite responsibilites, without help, with no other aim than the one he sets himself, with no other destiny than the one he forges for himself on this earth."
existentialism