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12 Cards in this Set

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VIP

Definition of emerging infections?
A previously IDed pathogen that has recently acquired the capacity to resist antibiotic treatment
Do antibiotics live in livestock?
Yes - cause of resistance
VIP

In the absence of selection, how probable is the appearance of a mutant? Therefore does a mutant need to be a founder?
It is stochastic (random), so a mutant need not be a founder.
Specifically, why do new mutations occur in pathogens?
From errors in replication
Why are mutations maintained?
Reproductive success
In the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, selection of resistant bacteria is most efficient when?
At a specific NARROW range of drug concentrations
Why are sub-lethal doses of drug particularly effective in selecting for resistance?
Because a mutation able to provide resistance to a reduced level of drug is a more likely event.
VIP

Describe how sometimes a "gradient" of selective pressure can be formed within the patient:
The patient may have factors (lung damage) that increase and even maximize the chance that selection for resistance will be successful by allowing for a place in the body where the bacteria can hide out and develop resistance.
How do multi-drug resistant bacteria form? (2)
Forms from bacteria that pass their virlence factors to other strains and species of bacteria - this can result in a previously non-pathogenic bacterium causing disease. It can also form in a bacteria with a multi-drug efflux system that can export drugs that penetrate one or both of their layers. This apparatus is formed when a bacteria encounters multiple drugs
VIP

What three things must physicans do in response to increasing problem of resistance?
1. stay informed
2. take an activist role
3. educate patients
What does increasing lethality do to a pathogen?
decreases transmission
What is the six step "rational drug design protocol"
1. ID the target molecule
2. ID (guess) the lead compoung
3. characterize the degree of binding between lead and target molecules
4. determine the structure of the complex
5. design an improved lead compound.
6. go back to step 3