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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in interstitial space or body cavities
Inflammatory edema is caused directly by tissue injury. What four things causes non-inflammatory edema?
1. increased hydrostatic pressure
2. decreased plasma oncotic pressure
3. lymphatic obstruction
4. sodium and water retention
What is a classic edematus disease?
What is dependant edema?
Think it is edema that's degree depends on how bad the underlying disease that is causing the edema is (CHF)
What is anasarca?
a medical symptom characterised by widespread swelling of the skin due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space.
aka generalized edema
What can anasarca lead to?
Periorbital edema
Compare and contrast hyperemia and congestion:
Hyperemia = active hyperemia, blood collects in an organ due to increased blood flow. Ex. acute inflammation

Congestion: passive hyperemia, blood collects in an organ due to an obstruction in the outflowing veins. Ex. CHF
What is hyperemia?
the medical condition in which blood congests in a part of the body
Chronic passive congestion is a form of congestion (passive hyperemia) with characterisitic changes in which three organs?
Lungs, liver, spleen
Why does chronic passive congestion occur?
Caused by right heart failure (which is caused by left heart failure) p.123 Fig4-4
a condition that results from serous fluid accumulating in the pleural cavity
Elephantiasis, causes?
is a syndrome that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. Elephantiasis generally results from obstructions of the lymphatic vessels. It is most commonly caused by a parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis
the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin sur
a flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessel
Nutmeg liver
caused by chronic passive congestion of the liver secondary to right heart failure. The liver appears "speckled" like a nutmeg, from the dilated, congested central veins (dark spots) and paler, unaffected surrounding liver tissue.
Is there any hemorrhage that is normal?
Menstruation is the ONLY normal hemorrhage! VIP
Hematoma, commonly called?
is a collection of blood, generally the result of hemorrhage, or, more specifically, internal bleeding. Hematomas are commonly called bruises and can also develop in organs
a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. Its cause is usually traumatic, from a blunt or penetrating injury to the thorax, resulting in a rupture of either of the serous membrane lining the thorax and covering the lungs. This rupture allows blood to spill into the pleural space
the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity
Petechiae, example of when they can occur?
a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). Forceful coughing or vomiting can cause facial petechiae, especially around the eyes.
Hemarthrosis, example of when it occurs?
a bleeding in joint spaces, often occurring in life-threatening cases such as hemophilia where the bleeding does not stop
the appearance of red or purple discolorations on the skin, caused by bleeding underneath the skin. Small spots are called petechiae, while large spots are called ecchymoses.
formation of thrombus (blood clot) within a uninterrupted vascular system. It is a pathological process
VIP: Fig 4-13

What are the three mechanisms of thrombosis?
1. endothelial injury - inflammation, atherosclerosis
2. altered blood flow - stasis, A-fib
3. hypercoagulable state - protein C deficiency, smokers, use of oral contraceptives
an intravascular substance (solid, liquid, gas) which is carried by blood from a point of origin to a distant site
thrombosis of a vein without inflammation of the vein (phlebitis)
Homan's sign, what is done to elicit this sign? What does this look for?
is said to be present when sharp dorsiflexion of the ankle by the examiner elicits sharp pain in the calf. It is caused by a thrombosis of the deep veins of the leg. This sign is rarely elicited in clinical practice because of the risk of embolisation and because it occurs in all lesions of the calf, making it diagnostically unhelpful
Four types of emboli?
1. fragments of thrombi (thromboembolism) - Classic
2. amnotic fluid
3. air (gas)
4. fat
Saddle embolus
an embolus that straddles the branching of an artery blocking both branches
an area of ischemic necrosis within tissue or an organ, produced by occulsion of either its arterial supply or venous drainage
What are the two types of infarcts? Are they independant of one another?
1. White (ishemic) - caused by an arterial occlusion
2. Red (hemorrhagic) - caused by a venous occlusion

Usually it is not one or the other - they are on a continum.
If there is an infarct in the lung which type of infarct is most likely?
If there is an infarct in the spleen or kidneys which type of infarct is most likely?
Four factors that influence the development of an infarct
1. nature of the vascular supply
2. rate of development of the occlusion
3. vulnerability of tissue to hypoxia
4. oxygen content of blood
What does the survival of the patient with a thrombus depend on?
Depends on size and location of infarct as well as collateral circulation
When could an asymptomatic infarct occur?
If the occlusion (thrombus) occurs in secondary branches of an artery (ex. renal or pulmonary a.)
Describe the pathogenisis of shock
VIP - self study.
When developing a differential diagnosis for abnormal bleeding what three abnormalities must be considered?
Abnormalities in:
1. blood vessel wall
2. platelets
3. clotting factors
List six types of shock and describe the pathogenesis of each (self-study)
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