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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Lesion
A nonspecific term referring to abnormal tissue in the body
Etiology
A study of causation
Pathogenesis
Mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease
Ischemia
A restriction of blood supply resulting in damage to tissues
Anoxia
A hypoxia in which there is a complete DEPRIVATION of oxygen supply
Necrosis
Accidental death of cells and living tissue that is less orderly than programmed cell death
Karyolysis
A process of cells undergoing necrosis in which the nucleus, which has been condensed into chromatin, is degraded by DNAase enzymes
Pyknosis
A process that occurs during necrosis in which the nucleus condenses into chromatin
Karyorrhexis
The fragmentation of the nucleus of a cell undergoing programmed cell death or necrosis
Endocytosis
A process by which cells absorb material from outside by engulfing it with their cell membrane
Phagocytosis
A form of endocytosis where large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a larger cell
Pinocytosis
A form of endocytosis in which small particles are taken in by the cell. Used primarily for the absorption of extracellular fluids. And it generates very small vesicles.
Psammoma body
A round collection of Ca seen microscopically and commonly seen in certain tumors such as thyroid and ovarian.
Hyperplasia
A general term for an increase in the NUMBER of cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase the size.
Hypertrophy
The increase of the size of the organ not due to cell division.
Metaplasia
The replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type.
What is an example of physiologic hyperplasia?
During pregnancy - breast and uterus
What is an example of physiologic atrophy (decrease in the size of the cell)?
cessation of menses in postmenopausal women
Clinical example of metaplasia?
Normal endocervix (simple columnar) vs abnormal (squamous)
Why does metaplasia occur?
Body is trying to protect itself and it turns pathologic
Is metaplasia reversible?
Yes
Which tissues are injuried worse: ischemia or hypoxic?
Ischemic - since nutrients have also been compromised
What intracellular systems are disrupted in: atherosclerosis and emphysema?
Aerobic respiration
When ATP is no longer available inside cell, what happens? (4)
1. Na-K pump stops -> Na accumulates inside cell and water rushes in causing cell swelling
2. Also Ca pump fails - causes influx of Ca which damages mitochondria. Mito releases CytoC (apoptotic protein) to cause cell death
3. Ribosomes detach from RER leading to irreversible damage of necrosis.
4. Proteins can be misfolded causing death
What does lead poisoning damage within the cell that is so bad?
Synthesis of enzymatic and structural proteins.
VIP

What two factors influence the degree of injury or death?
1. depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
2. oxygen deprivation
What is the end result of the hypoxic injury model?
Cellular swelling caused by Na staying in and Ca moving in to cell.
What are two reversible cell injuries?
1. cellular swelling
2. steatosis (fatty change)
What three radical species are created during the free radical injury model?
H2O2, O2- (superoxide), and OH (hydroxyl radicals)
What is happening to the body when someone OD'ed on Tylenol?
Excessive free radical formation
What are the three important effects of the three free oxygen radicals?
1. lipid peroxidation of membrance - free radicals mix with oxygen causing peroxidation of lipids within the plasma and organellar membranes. This causes severe cellular damage.
2. oxidative modification of proteins - free radicals enhance degradation of proteins
3. lesion in DNA - free radicals cause cellular aging by making lesion in DNA
VIP

Three mechanisms to remove free radicals and there by minimize injury:
1. antioxidants (Vit C)
2. iron and copper - bind to reactive species
3.enzymes that are part of a free radical scavenging system.
VIP

What removes perioxides from the cell?
Perioxisomes
Is there an inflammatory response in apoptosis?
NO!!
What is the color change necrotic tissue undergoes?
They lose their normal basophilia and show an increased eosinophilia.
In which, apoptosis or necrosis, is the cell's plasma membrane disrupted?
Only necrosis
VIP

Coagulation necrosis
A pattern associated with severe ischemia (aka ischemic necrosis) and is usually in solid organs like heart and kidneys

Characteristics: ghost-like remnants of intact cells which lack nuclei.
VIP

Liquifactive necrosis
A pattern of necrosis associated with bacterial infections. Bacterial release enzymes causing rapid loss of cellular structure and a collection of liquid and debris (pus). Organ gets broken down.

Brain is where this occurs the most.
VIP

Caseous Necrosis
A pattern of necrosis that is associated with a unique inflammatory reaction, a granuloma. In lungs. Think TB.

Characterized by granular debris (dead cells) in the center of the granulomatous cell reaction. Tissue is soft and white, looking like cottage cheese.
VIP

Enzymatic Fat Necrosis
Term is used to describe focal cell death in the pancreas and adjacent fat. Enzymes from damaged pancreatic cells digest adipose cells.

Characterisitics: yellow-ish white insoluble soaps

Location: Breast and pancreas
VIP

Gangrene
Clinical term that represents coagulation necrosis of an extremity. And if bacteria contaminate dying tissue + liquifactive necrosis = wet gangrene
What are Mallory bodies?
"alcoholic hyalline" - an eosinophilic body in liver cells that is characteristic of liver disease. Caused by an accumulation of keratin filaments.
What are Russell bodies?
These are large homogenous eosinophilic inclusions caused by the synthesis of excessive amounts of normal secretory protein.
Cellular side effect of diabetes mellitus?
Glycogen deposits in the epithelial cells of the distal portions of the proximal tubule, loop of henle, liver, pancreas, and heart
What is Niemann-Pick disease?
Lysosomal storage disease that has a defective enzyme that moves cholesterol - so cholesterol accumulates
What is Pompe disease?
A glycogen storage disease that causes glycogen to be stored every where - including the heart
VIP

Compare and contrast dystrophic calcification with metastatic calcification:
Dystrophic: calcification that occurs as a result of necrosis or tissue damage.

Metastatic: occurs in normal tissues when there is hypercalcemia.