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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fatty acids
any member of the family of continuous-chain carboxylic acids that generally contain 4 to 20 carbon atoms; the most concentrated source of energy used by the cell
saturated fatty acid
a long-chain monocarboxylic acid in which each carbon of the chain is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fatty acid
a long-chain monocarboxylic acid having at least one carbon-to-carbon DOUBLE bond
the formation of an ester in the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
acid hydrolysis
1) reverse of esterification
2) producing fatty acids from esters
a reaction in which a soap is produced; more generally, the hydrolysis of an ester by an aqueous base
a reaction in which hydrogen (H2) is added to a double or a triple bond
essential fatty acids
the fatty acids linolenic and linoleic acids that must be supplied in the diet b/c they cannnot be synthesized by the body
arachidonic acid
a fatty acid derived from linoleic acid; the precursor of the prostaglandins
any of the derivatives of twenty-carbon fatty acids, including the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes
a family of hormonelike substances derived from the twenty-carbon fatty acid, arachidonic acid
a lipid that contains glycerol
neutral glyceride
the product of the esterification of glycerol at one, two, or three positions
the product of the esterification of glycerol at one position
the product of esterification of glycerol at two positions
triacylglycerol; a molecule composed of glycerol esterified to three fatty acids
a lipid containing a phosphoryl group
a molecule with fatty acids esterified at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol and a phosphoryl group esterified at the C-3 position
a molecule of glycerol with fatty acids esterified to C-1 and C-2 of glycerol and a FREE phosphoryl group esterified at C-3
emulsifying agent
a bipolar molecule that aids in the suspension of fats in water
a phospholipid that is derived from the amino alcohol sphingosine rather than from glycerol
a sphingolipid found in abundance in the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates cells of the central nervous system
a lipid derived from cholesterol and composed of one five-sided ring and three six-sided rings
the general term for lipids that are synthesized from isoprene units
terpene include;
1) steroids
2) bile salts
3) lipid-soluble vitamins
4) chlorophyll
a 27 carbon steroid ring structure that serves as the precursor of the steroid hormones
a collection of lipids that are generally considered to be esters of long-chain alcohols
complex lipid
a lipid bonded to other types of molecules
plasma lipoprotein
a complex composed of lipid and protein that is responsible for the transport of lipids throughout the body
a plasma lipoprotein (aggregate of protein and triglycerides) that carries triglycerides from the intestine to all body tissues via the bloodstream
very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)
a plasma lipoprotein that binds triglycerides synthesized by the liver and carries them to adipose tissue for storage
low-density lipoproteins(LDL)
plasma lipoprotein that carries cholesterol to peripheral tissues and helps to regulate cholesterol levels in those tissues
high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
a plasma lipoprotein that transports cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the liver
fluid mosaic model
the model of membrane stucture that describes the fluid nature of the lipid bilayer and the presence of numerous proteins embedded w/i the membrane
peripheral membrane protein
a protein bound to either the inner or the outer surface of a membrane
transmembrane protein
a protein that is embedded w/i a membrane and crosses the lipid bilayer, protruding from the membrane both inside and outside the cell
passive transport
the net movement of a solute from an area of high [ ] to an area of low [ ]
facilitated diffusion
move. of a solute across a memb. from an are a of high [ ] to an area of low [ ] through a transmemb. protein, or permease
net flow of a solvent across a semipermeable memb. in response to a [ ] gradient
active transport
the move. of molecules across a memb. against a [ ] gradient
fatty acids
1) straight apiphatic chains w/ carboxylic acid group at one end
degree of saturation depends on?
# of double bond
multiple double bonds
double bonds usually cis in?
natural fatty acids
melting point determined by?
degree of unsaturation and chain length
composition of types of fatty acids in membranes determines?
Lauric acid
a typical saturated fatty acid w/ 12 carbon in the chain (in salt form)
fatty acid
1) 12-20 carbons
2) even # carbons
3) no blanching
4) nonpolar carbon chain
5) polar COO- group (as anion)
an unsaturated fatty acid has?
one or more carbon-carbon double bonds in chain
the 1st double bond of an unsaturated fatty acid is usually at?
the 9th carbon
the double bonds are?
1) not conjugated
2) usually CIS
Cis double bond result in?
1) a bent chain
2) lower melting point
3 hydroxyl groups on glycerol react with fatty acids to produce
1) monoacylglycerols
2) diacylglycerols
3) triacylglycerols
triacylglycerol (triglyceride) is formed when?
when all 3 alcohol groups of glycerol form esters w/ fatty acids