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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many ATP per beta oxidation cycle?
2 per FAD --> FADH2
3 per NAD --> NADH
12 per acetyl CoA x 2
What are the ketone bodies?
D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (and its nonenzymatic breakdown product, acetone)
Why can't animals convert fatty acids into glucose?
The acetyl CoA from beta oxidation can't be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in the TCA cycle. The carbons are oxidized to CO2.
What enzymes activate and trasport FAs into the mitochondria?
1. acyl CoA synthase + CoASH + ATP
2. carnitine acyltransferase I
3. acylcarnitine tranlocase
4. carnitine acyltransferase II
What are the enzymes in beta oxidation?
1. acyl CoA dehydrogenase + FAD
2. enoyl CoA hydratase
3. hyroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase + NAD
4. ketothiolase + CoASH
What are the enzymes in the beta oxidation of and unsaturated fatty acid?
1. acyl CoA dehydrogonase + FAD
2. 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase + NAD
3. isomerase
What are the products of the beta oxidation of a fatty acid with an odd number of carbons?
acetyl CoA + propionyl CoA
What configuration are the double bonds of naturally ocurring fatty acids?
always cis
How is beta oxidation regulated?
the availability of free lipids by the action of hormone-sensitive triacylglycerol lipase
What is the pathway of ketogenesis?
1. 2 acetyl CoA combine to form acetoacetyl CoA
2. combines with acetyl CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA)
3. loses acetyl CoA to form acetoacetate
4. add NADH (reduce) to form D-3-hydroxybutyrate
Where does fatty acid synthesis take place?
What is the reductant in fatty acid synthesis?
What is the CoA equivalent in fatty acid synthesis?
acyl carrier protein (ACP)