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77 Cards in this Set

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/bin
Essential command binaries Holds the files needed to bring the system up and run it when it first comes up in single-user mode. Holds system utilities
/boot
Static files of the boot loader Contains all of the files needed to boot the system.
/dev
Device files
/etc
Machine–local system configuration files One of the most important is /etc/passwd
/etc/X11
Machine–local configuration files for the X Window System
/home
User home directories
/lib
Shared Libraries
/lib/modules
Loadable kernel modules
/mnt
Mount point for temporarily mounting filesystems
/opt
Add-on software packages. (optional)
/proc
Kernel and process information virtual filesystem
/root
home directory for root
/sbin
Essential system binaries Utilities used for system administration are stored in /sbin and /usr/sbin.
/sbin *also
/sbin directory includes utilities needed during the booting process
/usr/sbin
holds utilities used after the system is up and running
Older versions of linux
In older versions of Linux, many system administration utilities were scattered through several directories that often included other system files (/etc, /usr/bin, /usr/adm, /usr/include).
/sys
Device pseudofilesystem
/tmp
temporary files
/usr
Second major hierarchy. Traditionally includes subdirectories that contain information used by the system. Files in /usr subdirectories do not change often and may be shared by several systems.
/usr/bin
Most user commands. Contains the standard linux utility programs. that is binaries that are not needed in single-user mode.
/usr/lib
Libraries
/usr/local
Local hierarch Holds locally important files and directories that are added to the system. can include bin, games, include, lib, sbin, share, and src
/var
Variable data, files with contents that vary are stored here
/var/log
Log files Contains lastlog (a record of the last login by each user), messages (system messages from rsyslogd), and wtmp (a record of all logins/logouts).
cd
Associates you with another working directory
chmod
Changes the access permissions on a file
getfacl
Displays a files ACL
ln
Makes a link to an existing file
mkdir
Creates a directory
pwd
displays the pathname of the working directory.
rmdir
Deletes a directory.
setfacl
Modifies a files ACL
ACL
Access control lists.
ACL's allow you
share selected files with other users.
Maximum file name
255 characters
Should you use spaces in filenames.
No
stat
Displays information about a file or filesystem.
T or F Linux is case sensitive
true
T or F file name extensions are mandatory
False they are not neccesary
Absolute pathname
You can build the absolute pathname of a file by tracing a path from the root directory through all the intermediate directories to the file
relative pathname
traces a path from the working directory to a file
The "."
is synonymous with the pathname of the working directory and can be used in its place
The ".."
is synonymous with the pathname of the parent of the working directory.
rmdir -r
deletes directory and files inside.
touch
creates an empty file
ls -l
displays file permissions
chmod a
all users
chmod u
user/owner of the file
chmod g
group
chmod 0
other
Link
is a pointer to a file
ln
creates a hard link
rm
removes a link
R W X
Read write execute
ls -l
Long Listing
ls -i
inode
ls -a
show hidden files
ls -A
show hidden files, wont show .. parent or .
ls -h
human readable
ls -F
shows a / if directory
ls -t
time
ls -r
reverse
ls -R
recursive
ls -s
sort by size
mount
mount a filesystem
umount
unmount a filesystem
df
show amount of disk space free
du
show amount of disk space used
stat
display file or filesystem status
file
determines filetype
info
read info documents
fsck
check and repair a linux filesystem.
mkfs
build a linux filesystem
tune2fs
adjust tuneable filesystem parameters.
/etc/opt
Configuration files for add on software packages
/usr/include
header files included by C programs
/var/spool
spooled application data.