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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An executable file that may be run is a ______.
program
A program that is running in memory and on the CPU - A program in action is a ______.
process
A process begun while logged into a terminal that runs in that terminal is called a ______.
user process
A system process not associated with a terminal is called a ______.
daemon process
Daemon processes are usually started at ______.
system startup
Every process has a unique ______ that allows the kernel to identify it uniquely.
process ID
(PID)
Each process may start an unlimited number of other processes called _______ processes.
child
Each process must have been started by an existing process called a ______ process.
parent
Each process has a ______ or a _____ ______ ID which identifies the process that started it.
PPID
parent process
True or False:
PPIDs are given to new processes in sequential order.
false
While each process may have an unlimited number of child processes, it may have only _____ parent process(es).
one
The first process started by the Linux kernel is the ______ daemon.
init
The init daemon has a PID of _____.
1
The init daemon has a PPID of ______.
0
The "grandfather of all user processes" is the _____ ______.
init daemon
The ______ command displays a list of processes that are running in the current shell.
ps
Without arguements, the ps command displays:
1. _________________________
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. The PID of each process
4. The terminal of each process
The command that started each process
Without arguements, the ps command displays:
1. The command that started each process
2. _______________________
3. The PID of each process
4. The terminal of each process
The time each process has taken to run
Without arguements, the ps command displays:
1. The command that started each process
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. ____________________
4. The terminal of each process
The PID of each process
Without arguements, the ps command displays:
1. The command that started each process
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. The PID of each process
4. _________________
The terminal of each process
With the -f option, in addition to the following 4 items:
1. The command that started each process
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. The PID of each process
4. The terminal of each process
The ps command displays:
5. ________________________
6. The PPID of each process
7. The time each process was started
8. The CPU utilization
The user who started the process
With the -f option, in addition to the following 4 items:
1. The command that started each process
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. The PID of each process
4. The terminal of each process
The ps command displays:
5. The user who started the process
6. _________________________
7. The time each process was started
8. The CPU utilization
The PPID of each process
With the -f option, in addition to the following 4 items:
1. The command that started each process
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. The PID of each process
4. The terminal of each process
The ps command displays:
5. The user who started the process
6. The PPID of each process
7. __________________________
8. The CPU utilization
The time each process was started
With the -f option, in addition to the following 4 items:
1. The command that started each process
2. The time each process has taken to run
3. The PID of each process
4. The terminal of each process
The ps command displays:
5. The user who started the process
6. The PPID of each process
7. The time each process was started
8. _________________________
The CPU utilization
To display only the bash shells in output of a ps -ef command, you would add on the _______ command and thus type __________. (2 different answers for blanks)
grep
ps -ef | grep bash
True or False:
Daemon processes are displayed by the ps -f command.
false
To display a list of processes across all terminals including daemon processes, add the ______ option to any ps command.
-e
The most valuable information provided by the ps -f command is each process's ______ and lineage.
PPID
Daemons started by the init daemon have a PPID of ______.
1
In the output of a ps command, daemons have a _______ in the TTY column because they do not run on a terminal.
?
Does the -l option to ps display more or less information about each process than the -f option?
more
The process _____ or (_____), indicates particular features of the process.
flag or (F)
The process _____ or (_____) column indicates what the process is currently doing.
state or (S)
If a process is not being run on the processor at the current time, you will see a/an _____ in the process state column which stands for ______. (2 different answers for blanks)
S
sleeping
If a process is currently running on the processor you will see a/an ______ in the process state column which stands for __________. (2 different answers for blanks)
R
running
If a process has stopped or is being traced by another process, you will see a/an ______ in the process state column which stands for __________. (2 different answers for blanks)
T
trace
If a process has finished executing but its process ID has not been released by its parent process, you will see a/an ______ in the process state column which stands for __________. (2 different answers for blanks)
Z
zombie process
While a process is waiting for its parent process to release its PID, the process is said to be in a __________ state.
zombie
If zombie processes accumulate they may prevent new processes from being created - If this occurs, you may kill the _______.
parent process of the zombies
Another name for zombie processes is __________ processes.
defunct
The priority used by the kernel for a process is the ______ _______.
process priority
A _____ would indicate high process priority.
0
A ______ would indicate low process priority.
127
A _____ value can be used to indirectly affect process priority.
nice or NI
In ps output, ADDR indicates the _______ of the process.
memory address
In ps output, WCHAN indicates what the process is waiting for while ______.
sleeping
In ps output, SZ indicates the size of the process in ______.
memory, measured in kilobytes
When options to the ps command are not prefixed by a dash character they are referred to as ______ style options.
Berkeley
Using Berkeley style options, the _____ option to the ps command lists all processes across terminals.
a
Using Berkeley style options, the _____ option to the ps command lists processes that do not run on a terminal.
x
When using Berkeley style options with the ps command, the process state column is identified by the heading __________.
STAT
When using Berkeley style options with the ps command, the process state column may contain a/an ______ to indicate the process has no contents in memory.
W
When using Berkeley style options with the ps command, the process state column may contain a/an ______ to indicate the process is a high priority process.
<
When using Berkeley style options with the ps command, the process state column may contain a/an ______ to indicate the process is a low priority process.
N
In the /proc directory, each process information subdirectory is named for the ______ of the process it contains information about.
PID
Aside from ps, the most common command used to display processes is ______.
top
The ______ command displays an interactive screen listing processes organized by processor time.
top
When using the top command, are processes using the most processor time displayed at the top or bottom of the screen?
top
When using the top command, are processes using the least processor time displayed at the top or bottom of the screen?
bottom
Processes that have encountered errors during execution and are using up system resources are referred to as ______ processes.
rogue
While using the top utility, press the key combination of ______ to get a full listing of the different commands available to use.
h
Rogue and zombie processes using up system resources should be sent a ______ signal.
kill
To view the different kill signal names and associated numbers, use the ______ option to the kill command.
-l
The kill signal known as the hangup signal is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGHUP
1
The kill signal that stops a process and then restarts it with the same PID is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGHUP
1
A daemon may be sent a kill signal of ______ to restart it after a configuration file has been edited.
SIGHUP
When a daemon is restarted with SIGHUP, due to a configuration file being edited, it will then read the new _______ _______.
configuration file
The kill signal that sends an interupt signal to a process, (and is one of the weakest kill signals), is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGINT
2
The kill signal that is the most common kill signal used by processes to kill other processes is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGTERM
15
The kill signal known as the absolute kill signal is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGKILL
9
The kill signal which forces the Linux kernel to stop executing the process by sending the process's resources to /dev/null is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGKILL
9
Kill signal 9 sends a process's resources to __________.
/dev/null
When used to kill a currently running process, the ctrl-c key combination is actually sending a ______ kill signal to the process.
SIGINT
The kill signal which terminates a process by sending the process information in memory to a file called core on the hard disk is named ______ with a number of _____. (2 different answers for blanks)
SIGQUIT
3
The ______ key combination will send a SIGQUIT signal to a process that is currently running.
ctrl-\
The proper syntax for sending a SIGKILL signal to a proces called sample with a PID of 192 would be ______.
kill -9 192
True or False:
The name of a kill signal may be used instead of its number.
true
The default kill signal is ______.
SIGTERM or 15
The specified option to the kill signal must be preceeded by a ______.
- (a dash)
When a process can ignore kill signals it is known as ______ a signal.
trapping
The only kill signal that cannot be trapped by any process is ______.
SIGKILL or 9
When a process that has children has been sent a kill signal, that parent process will kill ______ first.
its children
The killall command uses the process _____ to kill rather than the PID.
name
The _____ command allows multiple processes of the same name to be killed in one command.
killall
To kill a process while in the top utility, press the _____ key and supply the appropriate PID and kill signal when prompted.
k
To kill a process while in the top utility, press the k key and supply the appropriate ______ and kill signal when prompted.
PID
To kill a process while in the top utility, press the k key and supply the appropriate PID and ______ when prompted.
kill signal
The amount of time a process has to use the CPU is called a ______.
time slice
The more time slices a process has, the more time it has to execute on the CPU and the ______ it will execute.
faster
The Linux kernel priority (PRI) of a process is directly related to the amount of ______ a process has on the CPU.
time slices
The ps command to list the PRI of a process uses the option ______.
-l
Can one change the PRI of a process directly?
no
A PRI of -20 would make said process more or less likely to receive CPU time slices?
more
A PRI of 120 would make said process more or less likely to receive CPU time slices?
less
A user can be "nice" to other users of the same computer by lowering the priority of their own processes by ______ their nice value.
raising
increasing
Processes are started with a nice value of ______ by default.
0
To start a process with an increased nice value you would use the ______ command and specify the ______ value using the -n option and the originally desired command to start.
nice
If the -n option is omitted when using the nice command, a nice value of ______ is assumed.
+10
To increase the priority of the ps -l command when starting it up you could type: ______.
nice -n -20 ps -l
On some Linux systems, background processes are given a nice value of ______ to lower the chance they will receive time slices.
4
After a process has been started, you may change its priority by using the ______ command and specifying the change to the nice value.
renice
After a process has been started, you may change its priority by using the renice command and specifying the change to the ______ value.
nice
You may use the ______ utility to change the nice value of a running process by pressing the r key and supplying the PID and the nice value when prompted.
top
You may use the top utility to change the nice value of a running process by pressing the ______ key and supplying the PID and the nice value when prompted.
r
You may use the top utility to change the nice value of a running process by pressing the r key and supplying the ______ and the nice value when prompted.
PID
The two daemons that can be used to ______ commands are the at daemon and the cron daemon.
schedule
The two daemons that can be used to schedule commands are the ______ daemon and the cron daemon.
at
The two daemons that can be used to schedule commands are the at daemon and the ______ daemon.
cron
To schedule a command or set of commands for execution at a later time by the at daemon you would specify the ______ as an arguement to the at command.
time
To schedule a command or set of commands for execution at a later time by the at daemon you would specify the time as an ______ to the at command.
arguement
To schedule a command or set of commands for execution at a later time by the at daemon you would specify the time as an arguement to the ______ command.
at
When the at command is invoked it displays a prompt that looks like: ______.
at>
Once commands have been entered, one line at a time, into at, use the ______ key combination to schedule the commands using atd.
ctrl-d
Once commands have been entered, one line at a time, into at, use the ctrl-d key combination to ______ the commands using atd.
schedule
Once commands have been entered, one line at a time, into at, use the ctrl-d key combination to schedule the commands using ______.
atd
The at daemon will use the ______ shell's environment when executing scheduled commands.
current
The shell environment and commands scheduled into at are stored in the ______ directory.
/var/spool/at
If the standard output of any command scheduled using atd has not been redirected to a ______, it will be mailed to the user.
file
If the standard output of any command scheduled using atd has not been redirected to a file, it will be ______ to the user.
mailed
The at command returns an at Job ______.
ID
Use the ______ command to see scheduled at jobs.
atq
at -l
The ______ command is a shortcut to the at -l command.
atq
The atq command is a shortcut to the ______ command.
at -l
The atq command is a ______ to the at -l command.
shortcut
True or False:
When running the at command, a regular user will see all scheduled at jobs.
false
True or False:
When running the at command, the root user will see all scheduled at jobs.
true
To show the contents of an at job along with the shell environment at the time the job was scheduled, use the -c option to the ______ command.
at
To show the contents of an at job along with the shell environment at the time the job was scheduled, use the ______ option to the at command.
-c
To remove an at job, use the ______ option to the at command.
-d
The ______ command is a shortcut to the at -d command.
atrm
The atrm command is a shortcut to the ______ command.
at -d
To at a later time, execute a shell script containing commands to be scheduled by the at daemon, use the ______ option to the at command.
-f
If the ______ and /etc/at.deny files do not exist, only the root user is allowed to schedule tasks with the at daemon.
/etc/at.allow
If the /etc/at.allow and ______ files do not exist, only the root user is allowed to schedule tasks with the at daemon.
/etc/at.deny
If the /etc/at.allow and /etc/at.deny files do not exist, only the ______ user is allowed to schedule tasks with the at daemon.
root
True or False:
If the /etc/at.deny file is blank then only root can use the at daemon to schedule tasks.
false
The /etc/at.deny file is ______ by default.
blank
The cron daemon uses configuration files called ______ to schedule tasks.
cron tables
The ______ field of a cron table is the absolute pathname to the command or shell script to be executed.
sixth
The sixth field of a cron table is the ______ pathname to the command or shell script to be executed.
absolute
The sixth field of a cron table is the absolute pathname to the ______ or shell script to be executed.
command
The sixth field of a cron table is the absolute pathname to the command or ______ to be executed.
shell script
The first field in a cron table specifies the ______.
minute past the hour
The second field in a cron table specifies the ______.
time in 24 hour format
The third field in a cron table specifies the ______.
day of the month
The fourth field in a cron table specifies the ______.
month of the year
The fifth field in a cron table specifies the ______.
day of the week
True or False:
As with the at command, cron uses /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny files.
true
To create or edit a user cron table use the ______ option to the crontab command.
-e
To create or edit a user cron table use the -e option to the ______ command.
crontab
The crontab command opens the ______.
vi editor
When finished editing a cron table, the information is stored in the file ______.
/var/spool/cron/username
To list your user cron table, use the ______ option to the crontab command.
-l
To list your user cron table, use the -l option to the ______ command.
crontab
To remove a cron table and all scheduled jobs, use the ______ option to the crontab command.
-r
The root user may edit, list or remove any other user's cron table by using the ______ option to the crontab command followed by the username.
-u
The root user may edit, list or remove any other user's cron table by using the -u option to the ______ command followed by the username.
crontab
The root user may edit, list or remove any other user's cron table by using the -u option to the crontab command followed by the ______.
username
Most system maintenence commands are scheduled by the ______ daemon from entries in the system cron table which is found at /etc/crontab.
cron
Most system maintenence commands are scheduled by the cron daemon from entries in the ______ which is found at /etc/crontab.
system cron table
Most system maintenence commands are scheduled by the cron daemon from entries in the system cron table which is found at ______.
/etc/crontab
The file which lists all users who may use the cron command is ______.
/etc/cron.allow
The file which lists all users who may not use the cron command is ______.
/etc/cron.deny
The file which lists all users who may use the at command is ______.
/etc/at.allow
The file which lists all users who may not use the at command is ______.
/etc/at.deny
The directory that contains additional system cron tables is ______.
/etc/cron.d
The default directory that stores user cron tables is ______.
/var/spool/cron
The system daemon that is configured with the ______ command is the at daemon or atd.
at
The system daemon that is configured with the at command is the ______ daemon or atd.
at
The system daemon that is configured with the at command is the at daemon or ______.
atd
The command used to run a foreground process in the background is ______.
bg (the background command)
A process that does not require the BASH shell to wait for its termination - upon execution, the user receives the BASH shell prompt immediately would describe a ______ process.
background
The command used to run a background process in the foreground is ______.
fg
A process for which the BASH shell that executed it must wait for its termination is a ______ process.
foreground
The act of creating a new BASH shell child process from a parent BASH shell process is known as ______.
forking
The command used to see the list of background processes running in the current shell is ______.
the jobs command
The command used to kill or terminate a process is the ______ command.
kill
The command that kills all instances of a process by command name is the ______ command.
killall
True or False:
A program is an executable or set of executables stored on physical storage media that can be loaded into physical memory and run.
true
What command, entered without arguements, will display a list of processes running on the current shell?
ps