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56 Cards in this Set

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political party
coalitions of coalitions, seat-maximizers, interest aggregators, wheel-greasers, minority wrenches, brands, election mobilizers
interest group
an organized body of individuals who share some political goals and try to influence public policy
special interest group
focus is on the goals of their members, whether it benefits the greater good or not. Example: National Association of Manufacturers fights for policies that benefit industry.
public interest groups
focus is advocating for the perceived common good, even if it is a controversial issue. Example: the National Rifle Association (NRA) believes that protecting the second amendment right to bear arms is vital to the health of the entire nation.
single-member plurality elections
winner takes all
proportional elections
winner does NOT take all. delegates are awarded based on proportion of popular vote (e.g. if Hillary Clinton wins 51% of California’s popular vote, she gets 51% of their delegates)
factional party
a factional party breaks away from one of the major parties. These types of parties often become third parties and have the most impact because the other parties are likely to absorb parts of their platform to “win them over.” ex. Bull Moose Party
economic protest party
These parties focus heavily on a wide-set of economic problems/issues.The economy moves in cycles, hence they are either absorbed by another party or they lose their appeal. ex. Populist Party
ideological party
These parties have members who share a wide-range of beliefs about how society should operate. They are the most enduring largely because the major parties never embrace their points of view. ex. Communist Party
Devurger’s Law
In single-member, plurality elections (winner takes all) you almost always get two parties for two reasons: (1)Voters make strategic decisions to support the candidate they perceive has the best chance of winning even if they are lukewarm about said candidate. (2)Voters fear that if they do not vote for one of the two front-runners, their votes will be wasted
ballot access
ballot access rules regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is either entitled to stand for election or to appear on voters' ballots. This is necessary.
horse race journalism
aka scorekeeper journalism: reporting on who is winning/losing
watchdog journalism
journalists investigate personalities and expose scandals
agenda-setting
(1) choosing the range of possible alternatives (2) setting the order and emphasis of how those alternatives are proposed and handled. Agenda-setting is an important concept in politics as a whole. ex. used by media and congress
priming
“setting up” a story or coverage in advance with a particular narrative that effects the way the public perceives the event while it happens. b. Critics argue that the “prime” can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. ex. 2008 Republican primaries: John McCain is back again.
framing
the opposite end of priming, this involves creating a narrative for an event after the fact. Critics argue that “opinion leaders”--- the pundits, media elite and experts who create these frames/interpretations—often do so without anything more than their gut analysis; yet, without clear evidence to support their view, they have an enormous influence. ex. LBJ 1968 did not run for second term because of a frame.
first-past-the-post elections
a British term for elections conducted in single-member districts that award victory to the candidate with the most votes.The party that wins the most votes tends to win even more seats than projected by its percentage of the vote.
linkage institutions
a social structure or system that connects people to government, such as the media, political parties, interest groups, elections, etc.
parliamentary system
is a system of government where in the ministers of the executive branch are drawn from the legislature, and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined. In such a system, the head of government is both de facto chief executive and chief legislator.
federal matching funds
Federal Election Commission matched dollars raised, up to half of a preset spending limit (indexed to inflation). (Obama declined--might be the end of federal matching funds)
Political Action Committees
groups formed to raise money for political campaigns. ex. GOPAC raises money for the Republican Party
pack journalism
The “pack” in this case refers to a pack of wolves, and the metaphor implies that journalists, once they sense a scandal, will “pile on” on a politician and continue to tear him/her apart under he/she is “wasted.”
prior restraint
The Prior Restraint Test refers to when the government can literally stop a newspaper from printing an article. The burden is on the government to show that publication poses substantial harm, the harm is imminent and stopping publication is the best way to prevent that harm.
closed primary
a primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot containing that party’s potential nominees. Candidates must appeal only to their base.
open primary
a primary election in which voters need not declare their party affiliation and can choose one party’s primary ballot to take into the voting booth. This increases turnout and provides important info for general election but raises the specter of sabotage.
framing
the opposite end of priming, this involves creating a narrative for an event after the fact. Critics argue that “opinion leaders”--- the pundits, media elite and experts who create these frames/interpretations—often do so without anything more than their gut analysis; yet, without clear evidence to support their view, they have an enormous influence. ex. LBJ 1968 did not run for second term because of a frame.
first-past-the-post elections
a British term for elections conducted in single-member districts that award victory to the candidate with the most votes.The party that wins the most votes tends to win even more seats than projected by its percentage of the vote.
linkage institutions
a social structure or system that connects people to government, such as the media, political parties, interest groups, elections, etc.
parliamentary system
is a system of government where in the ministers of the executive branch are drawn from the legislature, and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined. In such a system, the head of government is both de facto chief executive and chief legislator.
federal matching funds
Federal Election Commission matched dollars raised, up to half of a preset spending limit (indexed to inflation). (Obama declined--might be the end of federal matching funds)
Political Action Committees
groups formed to raise money for political campaigns. ex. GOPAC raises money for the Republican Party
pack journalism
The “pack” in this case refers to a pack of wolves, and the metaphor implies that journalists, once they sense a scandal, will “pile on” on a politician and continue to tear him/her apart under he/she is “wasted.”
prior restraint
The Prior Restraint Test refers to when the government can literally stop a newspaper from printing an article. The burden is on the government to show that publication poses substantial harm, the harm is imminent and stopping publication is the best way to prevent that harm.
closed primary
a primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot containing that party’s potential nominees. Candidates must appeal only to their base.
open primary
a primary election in which voters need not declare their party affiliation and can choose one party’s primary ballot to take into the voting booth. This increases turnout and provides important info for general election but raises the specter of sabotage.
semi-open-primary
a primary election that entitles independent voter to vote in a party’s primary.
semi-closed primary
a primary election that allows individual state parties to decide whether they permit independents to vote in their primaries and for which offices.
caucus
a method used to select delegates to attend a party’s national convention. Generally a local meeting selects delegates for a county-level meeting, which in turn selects delegates for a higher-level meeting; the process culminates in a state convention that actually selects the national convention delegates. Once a candidate in each party reaches a set amount of delegates, they have effectively won their party’s nomination.
Iowa Caucus
Iowa and New Hampshire are the testing grounds of candidate popularity. Iowa winnows out candidates rejected by the party faithful. New Hampshire tests the Iowa front-runners’ appeal to ordinary party voters. Studies show that New Hampshire has a greater direct effect on outcome of contested nomination. Iowa results affect New Hampshire results.
Super Tuesday
the Tuesday in February or March of a presidential election year when the greatest number of states hold primary elections to select delegates to national conventions at which each party's presidential candidates are officially nominated.
super delegates
An elected official or political party leader who attends a presidential nominating convention and who may or may not have made a commitment to vote for a candidate.Unlike most convention delegates, the superdelegates are not selected based on the party primaries and caucuses. Instead, most of the superdelegates are seated automatically, based solely on their status as current or former party leaders and elected officials
amicus curae/friend of the court briefs
An interest group might have their attorneys file a “friend of the court” or amicus curae brief, to show the court that the issue at hand has a larger importance. (Example: if Mr. Wexler sues the school board for stopping him from rapping in school, and his friend Jason Wolf represents him as an attorney, the American Civil Liberties Union might file an amicus curae brief saying that free speech in schools is of national importance to protect.)
litigation
Litigation refers to “going to court” or suing. Three ways interest groups do this: as the plaintiffs themselves, as the lawyers for whose case involves their interest and by filing friend of the court briefs
lobbying
is the practice of influencing decisions made by the government (in groups or individually). It includes all attempts to influence legislators and officials, whether by other legislators, constituents, or organized groups.
K-Street
a major thoroughfare in the United States capital of Washington, D.C. known for the numerous think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups that exercise influence from its location. Big interests groups can afford to have lobbyists on K-Street. The little guys can not.
Fairness Doctrine
when covering controversial issues (for instance abortion) both sides must get a hearing. That does not mean that they need to be treated even-handedly or given equal time, and it pertains to ISSUES not candidates.
Equal Time Rule
if one political candidate from one major party is given air time, then the other candidate must be given the same time.
libel laws
The media cannot print libels. They are protected from libel, however, if they can verify their claims (e.g. the truth is the best defense) and, to an extent, if they can show that the person targeted is a public figure. Most politicians would qualify as public figures.
defamation
a. The media is protected from libel however if they can verify their claims (e.g. the truth is the best defense) and, to an extent, if they can show that the person targeted is a public figure. Most politicians would qualify as public figures.
the 1st Amendment
Protects religious freedom, guarantees free speech, freedom of the press and assembly and the right to petition the government
frontloading primaries
states’ practice of moving delegate selection primaries and caucuses earlier in the calendar to gain media and candidate attention.
DNC
Democratic National Committee
RNC
Republican National Committee
solidarity incentives
interpersonal rewards such as fellowship, friendship, prestige, and similar positive outcomes from personal relationships
purposive incentives
satisfactions resulting from feeling one is a means to some valued end or achieving some goal or purpose
material incentives
goods, services, money, or equivalents, such as transportation and lunch stipends