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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lexical semantics
meaning of words
phrasal semantics
units bigger than words
pragmatics
how context affects meaning
tautologies
sentences that are always true
complementary antonyms
alive/dead
here/there
gradable antonyms
hot/cold
old/young
relational antonyms
give/receive
teacher/pupil
homonyms
words spelled the same and mean different things

bear, bear
homophones
words that sound the same but mean different things

bear, bare
polysemous
words related but different
hyponym
class of words (colors: red, orange, etc)
metonym
object sbstitutes for concept (crown-->king)
agent
doer of action
theme
undergoer of action
goal
endpoint of transaction
source
were action originates
instrument
means to accomplish action
experiencer
receives sensory input
discourse analysis
precedes phrase for interpretations

study of broad speech units comprising mult. aksfj
deictic expressions
depned on CONTEXT

yesterday, last week, this time, etc.
maxim of conversation
conversastional conventions

quantity, relevance, manner, quality
innateness hypothesis
people are autuomatically able to learn language
overgeneralizations
kids acquire regular grammatical rules and overuse

go-->goed
MLU

Mean Length of Utterances
average length of utterances child produces at particular point in life
dialect
regional variety of language
isogloseses
borders for separate dialects
idiolect
individual's way of speaking, reflecting on that person's grammar
code switching
Spanglish, etc used by bilinguals
standard
dialect considered as norm

often idealized
lingua Franca
trade language; used in places where speakers of more than one language life and allows communication and commerce
pidgin
simple but rule-governed language

NO NATIVES
creole
started from pidgin but used as native tongue
style/register
situation dialects (Fromal v casual)

damn v darn v NOTHING
slang
rapdily changing spread by age groups
jargon/argo
set of words used by particular occupational group

scientists, police, etc
taboo
words not used in polite soceity
euphemism
good word for a tabooo one in polite society
sociolinguists study whhhaatt?
study of effect of any/all aspects of society

LABOV
external v internal language
external: social contexts
SOCIOLINGUISTICS
internal: syntax, semantics; language in head of an abstract level
ideograms
generalized (less literal) pictograms
cuneiform
table+writing
logographic
word writing: each character represents language morpheme (CHINESE)
emoticons
text character expressions
rebus principle
something stands for SUN and can later be used as SON
phoremic principle
alphabets devised upon sound writing
digraph
SH
CH
NG
OA
letter combos to make one sound
bilabial
two lips touching

p b m w
labiodental
lip teeth

f v
interdental
tongue between teeth

th and TH
alveolar
tongue alveolar bridge

t d n s z l r
palatal
tongue and palate

SH ZZ J CH
velar
back of tongue and velar

k g NG m w
glottal
H
phonology
study of the way speech sounds form patterns
minimal pairs
two words with different meanings identical except for one sound segmt in the same place
phoneme
basic form of a sound--in MIND
allophone
different parts of phoneme--dif possible sounds
complementary distribution
phones never occur in the same environment
assimilation rules
neighboring segmts become more similar by duplicating phonetic properties
dissimilation
less similar sounds near one another
epenthesis
instert consonant/vowel
metathesis
switched order
neutralization
voicing contrast b/t T and D

flap?
derivation
steps in appointmetn of rules to an underlying form that results in surface representation
rime
nucleus + coda (following syllables)
optimality theory
the higher the phon. constraingt exists the more influence on English
open class
content words--can always be added to
closed class
function words

and, the, but, etc
morpheme
the most elemmental unit of grammatical form
morphology
study of internal structure of owrds and rules by which owrds are formed
discreteness
decomposition of words-->morphemes
free morphemes
can be words on their own

boy, dog, gentle
bound morphemes
not meaning but parts

ish, -ly, etc
circumfixes


disconnection morphemes
morphemes attached to base morphemes --BETWEEN
root
smallest content morpheme
base
any root/stem an affix is attached

(system and systematically)
derivational morphemes
create new word MEANINGS

-ify, -cation
coinage
KODAK, nylon
eponym
proper name

john, sandwich
back formations
bikini-->monokini
hamburger-->chickenburger
compounds
accent on the HEAD
blends
combine two words

smog, brunch
clipping
facsimile-->fax
acronyms
first initials

NASA
CIA
inflectional morphemes
strictly grammatical
change tense, number, gender, etc
(-s, -ed)
suppletive
irregular froms of inflectional morphemes (went-->go)
content morpheme
changes word meaning
(un-->untrue)
function morphemes
pluralize

s in books

etc
affix
prefix
suffix
infix
circumfix
syntax
part of grammar that represents a knowledge of sentences and their structures
constituents
natural groupings of a sentence

constituent structure--tree diagrams
syntactic category
family of expressions that can substitue for one another without gram.
embedded sentence

complementary s (CS)
sentence occurs within a sentence
recursive rules
phrase structure rules can be repeated within one another

VP-->VP NP
intransitive verb
Michael CAN'T sleep a fish
C-Selection

subcategorization
classifying verbs in category of complements accepted
S-Selection
classifying verbs and others in semantic category
deep structures
basic sentence structure
surface structures
derived structures after applying transformational rules
structure dependent
words in certain orders
parameters
vairation structure ways b/t languages
protolanguage
ancestral language which related languages have been dervied from
Great Vowel Shift
b/t 1400 and 1600 in Englih
new phonemic reps of words and morphemes: loong vowels changed
narrowed
deer=beast NOW just deer
broadened
dog=specific type NOW just all dogs
comparative method
find protolanguage through looking at descrendants' languages
unconditioned sound change
phonolgoical change in all contexts: long vowels in GVS always changed EVERYWHERE
conditioned sound change
specific context of phonological change (f--v voiced when b/t vowels)
analogic change
generalization of rules

cow--> cows instead of KINE