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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Number of World's Languages
The Ethnologue lists 6809
Conventional wisdom = 5000-7000
Three Faces Of Language
Expression, Meaning, Context
Expression
any bit of spoken, written, or signed language
Meaning
term used to refer to the senses and referents of expressions
Context
Refers to those aspects of a speech situation that affect the expression and enable an interpretation of the context
Signs
Indicators of something else
Arbitrary
Representational
Arbitrary Signs
Sign that has nothing to do with what it represents: Language, traffic lights, flags.
Representational Signs
Sign that has something to with what it represents
Grammatical Competence
Ability to produce and assign meaning to grammatical sentences
Communicative Competence
Ability to produce and interpret utterances appropriate to their context of use.
Pictogram
Symbolic drawing that represents an object or idea independently of the word that refers to that object or idea
Corpus Linguistics
Term used for compiling collections of texts and using them to probe language use.
Free Morphemes
Can stand alone
Bound Morphemes
Cannot stand alone
Derivational Morphemes
morpheme that serves to derive a word of one class or meaning from a word of another class or meaning
Inflectional Morphemes
bound morpheme that creates variant forms of a word to mark its syntactic function in a sentence.
Affixes
Bound morpheme that attaches to a root or stem morpheme. Prefixes & Suffixes are most common types
Agglutinating Morphology
Words can have several prefixes and suffixes, but are characteristically distinct and readily segmented into their pairs:
announce-ment-s
Inflectional Morphology Of English
Plural-cars
Possessive-car's
3rd Person-(she) swims
Past Tense-wanted, showed
Past Participle-wanted, shown
Present Participle-wanting, showing
Comparative-taller
Superlative-tallest
Collocations
Word pairs or sets that habitually co-occur in texts
Orthography
System of spelling used to achieve a match between the sound system of a language and the alphabet representing it
Dialect
Language variety characteristic of a particular social group
Register
language variety associated with a particular situation of use:
baby talk, legalese
Linguistic Repertoire
Set of language varieties used in the speaking and writing practices of a speech community
Markers of Style & Register
Lexical, Phonological, Grammatical, Semantic
DARE
Dictionary of American Regional English
Isogloss
Geographical boundary marking the limit of the regional distribution of a particular word, pronunciation, or usage
ANAE
Atlas of North American English
Dialect Vowel Shifts
Northern Cities Shift-cod=cad
Southern Shift-cool=kewl