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199 Cards in this Set

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SEMANTICS
Systematic study of meaning in language, especially word and sentence meaning.
LEXICAL SEMANTICS
the study of how words mean
COMPOSITIONAL SEMANTICS
the study of how words and syntax work together to make sentences mean.
POLYSEMY

and

POLYSEMOUS
General semantic process by which a single word develops many meanings; also, a quality such words express; the adjective form is _______ous.
IDIOM

and

IDIOMATIC
Expression whose meaning cannot be derived directly from the elements of which it is composed; for instance, 'My dogs are barking' 'My feet hurt' is an _____; such statements are_______ and are not a sort of "discourse metaphor."
DEIXIS
Reference to personal, temporal, or locational features of the circumstance in which an utterance is made, by means of adverbs (here, there, now, then) and pronouns (this, and that) whose meaning is relative to the circumstance.
PERSONAL DEIXIS
All personal pronouns "point" to particular people and are markers of ________: "I want the dog that you found in the alley"
SPATIAL DEIXIS
Demonstrative pronouns mark ______: "I want that dog" (i.e. the one over there, or near you) or "I want this dog" (i.e. the one near me).
TEMPORAL DEIXIS
Certain adverbs of time indicate ______: "I want the dog now" or "I will pick up the dog tomorrow."
DEFINING VOCABULARY
Lexicon from which definitions in a dictionary or glossary are written; most dictionaries ensure that all words used in their definitions are also defined in the same dictionaries, whereas glossaries like this one do not make a similiar assurance that all words used in them are defined in them
LEXICAL FIELD
Set of words that, on some conceptual basis, belong together; for instance, annual, journal, magazine, monthly, newspaper, periodical, quarterly, and weekly all belong to the same _________.
HYPONYMY
the semantic relationship between all hyponyms of a word and their respective hypernyms.
HYPERNYM
Word of more general meaning than others defined in relation to it; for instance, vehicle is a _____ for car, bus, bicycle, motorcycle, etc. Also called a superordinate.
SUPERORDINATE
Word of more general meaning than others defined in relation to it; for instance, vehicle is a ____ for car, bus, bicycle, motorcycle, etc. Also called hypernym.
HYPONYM
Word semantically subordinate to a hypernym or superordinate and semantically parallel to other words subordinate to the same term; for instance, car, bus, bicycle, and motorcycle al all_____ under vehicle; thier semantic relationship to one another, as well as to their hypernym, is called hyponymy.
LEXICAL GAP
Blank space in a lexicon, such that a concept lacks a word in a particular language to represent it.
MERONYM
Lexical item that participates in a whole/part relationship, such as whiskers, ears, tail, and cat. The lexical relationship is called ______y.
SYNONYMS
Word very close in meaning to another; word that shares a denotative meaning, but not connotative meaning, with another; the lexical relationship among such terms is _______y.
DENOTATIVE MEANING
Lexical meaning that depends on the relationship of a word to nonlinguistic things, rather than on linguistic and cognitive associations on the parts of the speakers and hearers. Also called denotation.
CONNOTATIVE MEANING
Lexical meaning that depends on linguistic and cognitive associations on the parts of the speakers and hearers, rather than on relationship of a word to nonlinguistic things in the world. Also called connotation.
ANTONYMS
pair of words each member of which means the opposite of the other, such as good and evil. The semantic relationship of such words is antonymy.
GRADABLE ANTONYMS
_____that are conceptually opposite, but not absolutely so; long and short are opposites, but some short things are nearly as long as some long things.
NONGRADABLE ANTONYMS
Terms representing absolute opposites, such as male and female, that cannot be considered in comparative terms, as "more" or "less" what they are; also called complementary antonyms.
COMPLEMENTARY ANTONYMS
Words with absolutely opposite meanings, such as male and female (either you're male or female), and no relative or intermediary ones, such as masculine and feminine (you can be more or less masculine than someone else). Also called nongradable antonyms.
CONVERSENESS
Distinguishing property of a class of nongradable antonyms that have dependent meanings, such as sister/brother, parent/child, and, proverbially, apples/oranges, though the latter are not equally _____.
HOMONYMS
Words of different meanings that take the same forms, such as cleave 'join' and cleave 'divide, separate, sunder'.
PRIMING
Means of testing mental awareness of a word and its lexical associations.
COLLOCATES
Arrangement of words into a phrase; combination of words that commonly co-occur as a phrase; such words are called collocates, and collocate is the related verb form.
HOMOPHONES
Words of different meanings and distinct origins pronounced (more or less) the same, such as witch and which.
HOMOGRAPHS
Words spelled identically, though of distinct origin and different meanings, and perhaps pronounced differently, such as wind 'moving air' and wind 'coil; turn; wrap'.
COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS
Semantic theory in which a word's meaning consists of a set of components, or "values," usually expressed in binary terms; for instance, cat can be analyzed as expressing, among others, the following components: [ + mammal] [+ domesticated] [+ scourge of rodents].
PROTOTYPE
Mental "best examples" of things that allow speakers to structure linguistic categories and create meaningful semantic relationships.
LEXICAL PROTOTYPE SEMANTICS
Theory of meaning in which image schemas at least partially represent lexical development.
ANALOGICAL MAPPING
Projection of meaning from one semantic domain into another, as when the term virus extends from human disease to computer malfunction; _________ operates in many semantic shifts.
GENERALIZATION
Process of semantic change in which a word with a specific meaning develops one or more related senses and so becomes a word of more general significance; for instance, in the fourteenth century, ceiling meant, narrowly, 'wooden lining of roof or walls of a room' but later came to mean the upper limit of a room and, even later, any upper limit (e.g. price ceiling).
SPECIALIZATION
Process of semantic change in which a word with a general meaning becomes a word of more specific meaning; for instance, by the eighteenth century, wit meant, narrowly, 'clever speech; faculty of clever speech; person with the faculty of clever speech', even though, in Old English, wit had referred to nearly any intellectual or mental ability.
METAPHORICAL EXTENSION
Semantic shift in which a word takes on a metaphorical sense, as when virus in the biological/medical sense is applied to antagonistic, invasive computer programs.
EUPHEMISM
Word or expression with positive connotations used in place of a neutral term; for instance, in "Anne is easygoing, but Michael is lax," easygoing is a euphemism for "lacking rigor, strictness, or firmness'. Also, the semantic process by which such words are formed.
DYSPHEMISMS
Word or expression with negative connotations, used in place of a neutral term; for instance, in "Anne is easygoing, bu Michael is lax," lax is a dysphemism for "lacking rigor, strictness, or firmness'.
PEJORATION
Semantic process in which a term of neutral significance takes on a negative meaning.
AMELIORATION
Semantic process by which a word means something "better" than it had at an earlier stage of its history; for instance, knight once simply meant 'boy, servant', but now indicates someone of a relatively high social rank.
REAPPROPRIATION
Process of claiming or reclaiming a historically derogatory term by a community that has been oppressed or stigmatized by that term.
PROJECTION RULES
System that guides words into appropriate syntactic roles.
THEMATIC ROLE
Intersection of lexical and syntactic functions of a word; semantics considered, not merely in terms of words, but in terms of their behavior in sentences.
AGENT
Thematic role, expressed in a noun or noun phrase, of the person or means by which an action, represented in a verb or verb phrase, is accomplished; an agent must have the capacity for volitional or deliberate action.
PATIENT
Thematic role, expressed in a noun or noun phrase, of something that receives the action initiated by an agent.
EXPERIENCER
Thematic role, expressed in a noun or noun phrase, of those who feel or perceive something; an ______ thus must be capable of feeling or perception.
PERCEPT
Thematic role, expressed as a noun or noun phrase, of something that can be experienced or perceived.
INSTRUMENT
Thematic role, expressed in a noun or noun phrase, of something with which an action is performed.
COMPOSITIONALITY
In semantics, the view that sentence meaning depends not only on the meanings of a sentence's parts, but on how those parts are put together.
TRUTH CONDITIONS
What must be true for an utterance or sentence to be true.
PRESUPPOSITIONS
Assumption that makes the truth of a proposition or utterance possible, as when assumption of a "king of France" allows us to consider the truth of the claim that "The present king of France is bald."
OBJECTIVISM
Theory of the relationship between language and thought in which people have access to an external or nonmental reality regardless of language.
LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY
System in which cognition varies or develops according to linguistic variation.
LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM
System in which linguistic categories establish the parameters of cognition.
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
Ability, whether innate or learned, to communicate with language in conversation with other speakers.
DISCOURSE
Continuous speech, whether spoken or written, larger than a sentence.
UTTERANCE
Realization of a given unit of speech on a specific occasion in a specific context; the basic unit of discourse.
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
Systematic study of discourse; also called DA.
CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
Systematic study of features within a discourse to the sociopolitical context in which the discourse occurs; also called CDA.
SPEECH ACT THEORY
Approach to language that conceives language as performing actions; any instance of language that does so is called a speech act.
LOCUTIONARY ACT
In speech act theory, the sounds and words that compose the supposedly referential meaning of an utterance.
ILLOCUTIONARY ACT
In speech act theory, intended or conventional meaning that can accompany a locutionary act within the compass of an utterance.
PERLOCUTIONARY ACT
In speech act theory, the effect achieved by on an utterance on a hearer.
DIRECT SPEECH ACT
Speech act in which a locutionary act corresponds exactly to an illocutionary act.
INDIRECT SPEECH ACT
Speech act in which a locutionary act does not correspond to an illocutionary act.
PERFORMATIVE SPEECH ACT
Utterances that explicitly state the action they perform, as in "I now pronounce you husband and wife"--the words and the act are one and the same.
FELICITY CONDITIONS
Criteria on which speech acts and illocutionary acts are judged more or less successful, that is, to have achieved their purposes.
COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE
In conversation, the principle that participants will cooperate with one another, especially that they will observe the conversational maxims defined by H.P. Grice, namely the maxims of manner, maxims of quality, maxims of quantity, and maxims of relation.
CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE
Meaning that can be deduced from an utterance without its being explicitly stated; for instance, "Anne just pulled into the driveway" implies "Prepare to meet her at the door."
MAXIMS OF QUANTITY
Components of the cooperative principle, literally, "Make your contributions as informative as required"; "Do not make your contribution more informative than is required."
MAXIMS OF QUALITY
Components of the cooperation principle, literally, "Do not say what you believe to be false"; "Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence."
MAXIM OF RELATION
Components of the cooperative principle, literally, "Be relevant."
MAXIMS OF MANNER
Components of the cooperative principle, literally, "Avoid obscurity of expression; avoid ambiguity" and "Be brief; be orderly."
IMPLICATURE
Meaning implied in addition to the truth-conditional meaning of a proposition.
ENTAILMENT
Logical relationship between a statement and the conditions on which it is true. Whereas "Not everyone did well on this quiz" might mean that any number taking the quiz performed less than well, it only ____ that one person did not perform well; whereas the same statement may imply that some students did poorly (it might function as a euphemism), it only says that at least one person did less than well, whatever well means.
RELEVANCE
Assumption, given the cooperative principle, that speakers' contribution to conversation will have an optimal bearing on the matter at hand.
POLITENESS
Ways in which speakers adapt (or do not adapt) to the needs and wants of other participants in conversation.
FACE
Conversational persona responsible for politeness toward others and receiving others' politeness.
POSITIVE FACE
Desire to be approved of or liked by other participants in conversation and, in part, determines conversational politeness.
NEGATIVE FACE
Desire to be unimpeded in one's actions which, in part, determines conversational politeness.
POSITIVE POLITENESS
Enhancing the positive face of others in conversation, for instance, by means of compliments and other markers of friendliness.
NEGATIVE POLITENESS
Respecting another's negative face, especially by using markers of deference, apology, etc.
FACE-THREATENING ACT
Any utterance that challenges the level of politeness in conversation.
DISCOURSE MARKERS
Lexical items, for instance, I mean and well, used to segment discourse into smaller, sequential units.
NOW
The discourse marker ____ typically functions as a focuser. In the example at the beginning of this section, in which the lecturer states, "Now, discourse markers...", ____ signals to the audience that an important piece of information is coming on this new topic.
AND
____ often shows continuity within the discourse, either by one speaker in a monologue or between two speakers, if one is continuing a thought by the other.
SO
____ serves many functions: to show effects or logical sequences; to introduce summaries or rephrasings; and, within an extended narrative, to indicate "parts of the story," much like signaling the beginning of a new paragraph. In the example at the beginning of this section, from the opening of a possible lecture, the first __ opens the narrative progressive of the lecture. The second __ indicates a logical progression.
WELL
The four distinct uses of ___ include" 10 introducing a new topic or directly reported speech; 2) prefacing a partial answer to a question; 3) prefacing a response that expresses disagreement and/or is face-threatening; and 4) filing a pause.(Many scholars categorize the"filler" use of ___, um, like separately from their uses as discourse markers.) If we return to your friend's declining your invitation to go bowling with, "______, actually, I'm already busy," the ____ is working to mitigate the FTA involved in turning down your invitation.
YOU KNOW (Y'KNOW)
____ can conclude an argument, introduce a new referent, introduce a story, and serve to establish solidarity with the audience. If you were to turn to your classmate and say, "I am, _____, pretty into these discourse markers," the _____ could function to establish shared ground with your classmate to help make your newly acquired fascination understandable. It could also help introduce this new fascination into the discourse.
I MEAN
_____ can signal an upcoming adjustment. It can also help minimize the authority of the speaker, which speakers often choose to do to make their audience feel more equal. For example, "I think that's the answer, _____, it's kind of hard to say, but I think so."
TURN
Basic unit of conversation.
CONVERSATIONAL FLOOR
Metaphorical area occupied by a person speaking in conversation, on which participants in the conversation take turns.
SILENCE
Pause that allows someone else to take the conversational floor.
QUESTIONS
In conversation, a means of taking turns, often by constructing adjacent pairs.
ADJACENT PAIRS
In discourse, utterances (like questions, requests, or invitations) that require a response together with the response: "I'm going to the movies. Do you want to go with?" "Yeah" The invitation and its response are adjacent (that is, immediately next to each other) in the conversation.
GESTURES
Meaningful nonverbal supplements to conversation.
EYE CONTACT
Nonverbal means by which one indicates willingness to turn the conversational floor over to another participant.
INTONATION
1.) Change in pitch that indicates something about sentence meaning; for instance, in Standard American English, rising intonation usually indicates that a sentence is a question. 2)Change in pitch that may indicate a participant's desire to relinquish or retain the conversational floor.
TURN-TAKING VIOLATION
Attempt to take or reluctance to give up the conversational floor once a turn is indicated, for instance by interruption or overlap.
OVERLAP
Concurrent speech by two or more participants in a conversation, when one mistakenly believes that the participant who holds the conversational floor has relinquished it and thus takes a turn.
INTERRUPTION
Attempt by one party to take the conversational floor from the speaker who occupies it.
BACK-CHANNELING
In conversation, any indication that a participant is paying attention; ______ may be verbal ("yeah" or "uh-huh" or "mmm" or nonverbal (as in head nodding).
MINIMAL RESPONSES
In conversation, any indication that a participant is paying attention; back-channeling may be verbal or nonverbal.
REPAIR
Attempt to restore cooperation or politeness to a conversation when either has broken down.
STYLE
1)Use of supposedly "good" or "correct" English. 2)Specific type of speech, for instance, formal speech or colloquial speech, academic speech or gossip, etc.
STYLE-SHIFT
Movement from one style to another in any type of discourse.
CODE-SWITCHING
Movement from one language to another (for instance, from Spanish to English) or from one variety of a language to another (for instance, from African American English to Standard English) depending on the social or linguistic situation.
STYLISTICS
Study of language as used in artificial contexts, such as literature, judicial and political speech, etc.; study of language as art or craft.
GNERES
Category of texts that share certain formal characteristics and textual functions, such as sonnet, novel of manners, and even resume.
REGISTERS
Text type that exhibits characteristics that distinguish it from other text types; for instance, personal letters constitute a ____ distinct from resumes, etc.
ELLIPSIS
1) Omission of a word or phrase necessary to complete a syntactic structure in the abstract but unnecessary in speech; for instance, in "I'm going to the movies. Do you want to go with?" the object me is omitted from the second sentence. "Do you want to go with?" is elliptical_- it is an _____ (omission of me) and also represents the syntactic process called _____. 2)In narrative, use of _____ to promote cohesion by connecting the points at which information is omitted and supplied.
ELABORATION
Re-presenting or clarifying material for purposes of narrative cohesion, by means of certain conjunctions; for instance, for instance is a narrative conjunction that introduces _____.
EXTENSION
Material added or qualified by means of narrative conjunctions, such as also, yet, and on the other hand, in order to promote cohesion.
ENHANCEMENT
Indication of cause, manner, space,or time by means of certain narrative conjunctions, such as meanwhile and because, in order to promote cohesion.
NARRATIVE
Story or structured account of events, as distinguished from description, exposition, and persuasion.
DESCRIPTION
Telling how things are, were, or will be, as distinct from narrative.
EXPOSITION
Explanation of how things are, were, or will be, as distinct from narrative.
PERSUASION
Argument for how things are, were, or will be, as distinct from narrative.
MATERIAL PROCESS
Verb that expresses physical activity.
MENTAL PROCESS
Verb that expresses thought or feeling.
VERBAL PROCESS
Verb that describes an act of communication.
RELATIONAL PROCESS
Verb that describes a thing "as" something or in relation to something else.
METER
Patterned arrangement of word in poetry, for instance, according to stress, number of syllables, or vowel length, etc, or some combination of these.
RHYTHM
Arrangement of stress in natural speech.
PROSODY
1)Distribution of intonation and stress. 2)Systematic arrangement of intonation and stress in poetry.
SCANSION
Symbolic representation of meter.
PURE ACCENTUAL METER
Patterned distribution of stress among syllables in a poetic line.
PURE SYLLABIC METER
Pattern of syllables per line of poetry, as in haiku.
ACCENTUAL-SYLLABIC METER
Patterned distribution of stress and syllables into poetic feet; according to traditional poetics, most English poetry employs _____________.
FOOT
Metrical unit in poetry composed of a certain number of syllables arranged in a certain pattern of stress.
CAESURA
Pause inserted into the metrical structure of a line of poetry.
ENJAMBMENT
Extension of a clause across two or more lines of poetry, as in the fifth stanza of Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky":
--One, two! One two! And through and through
--The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!
--He left it dead, and with its head
--He went galumphing back.
EYE RHYMES
Words that look as though they would rhyme exactly, but do not, such as move and glove.
ALLITERATION
Repetition of sounds or groups of sounds (usually, but not always, word-initial sounds) in successive words, as in the phrases "coordinating conjunction" and "past participle."
CONSONANCE
Alliteration in which the repeated sound is a consonant.
ASSONANCE
Alliteration in which the repeated sound is a vowel.
ONOMATOPOEIA
Creation or use of words the sounds of which imitate the sounds associated with things to which they refer, such as buzz and gasp!
MIMETIC
Imitative, in some sense, whether onomatopoeia or some broader imitative effect of literary speech
ANAPHORA
Repetition of a word or phrase within a sentence or, especially, among lines of a poem.
PARSE
ANALYZE A SENTENCE INTO COMPONENT PARTS
SYNTAX
SYSTEMATIC WAYS IN WHICH WORDS COMBINE TO CREATE WELL-FORMED PHRASES, CLAUSES, AND SENTENCES
PARTS OF SPEECH
or
LEXICAL CATEGORIES
LEXICAL CATEGORY TO WHICH A WORD BELONGS AND ACCORDING TO WHICH IT FUNCTIONS GRAMMATICALLY
FORM
GRAMMATICAL CLASS OR CATEGORY OF A WORD
FUNCTION
ROLE OF A WORD IN A PHRASE OR CLAUSE
NOUNS
WORD THAT REPRESENTS A PERSON, PLACE, THING, QUALITY, ACTION, CONCEPT, IDEA, ETC, AND THAT FUNCTIONS AS SUBJECT OR OBJECT IN A SENTENCE; ALSO, A LEXICAL CATEGORY INCLUDING SUCH WORDS.
ADJECTIVES
WORD THAT MODIFIES (LIMITS, QUALIFIES, OR SPECIFIES) A NOUN; ALSO, A LEXICAL CATEGORY THAT INCLUDES SUCH WORDS
VERBS
WORD THAT REPRESENTS ACTION, EXISTENCE, RELATION, OR STATE OF BEING; ALSO THE LEXICAL CATEGORY TO WHICH SUCH WORDS BELONG
ADVERBS
WORD THAT MODIFIES (LIMITS, QUALIFIES, OR SPECIFIES) EITHER A VERB OR AN ADJECTIVE OR ANOTHER ADVERB; ALSO, A LEXICAL CATEGORY INCLUDING SUCH WORDS. A CLAUSE WITH AN ADVERB OR ADVERBIAL PHRASE AT ITS HEAD IS CALLED AN ADVERBIAL CLAUSE.
COUNTABLE NOUNS
NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNTED; FOR INSTANCE, NOUN IS A COUNTABLE NOUN ("THERE ARE ONE HUNDRED NOUNS ON THIS PAGE") BUT LINGUISTICS IS NOT (*"THERE ARE ONE HUNDRED LINGUISTICS IN THIS BOOK")
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN
NOUNS THAT REPRESENT THINGS OR CONCEPTS THAT CANNOT BE COUNTED, SUCH AS STUFF AND WATER, SOMETIMES CALLED "MASS NOUNS"
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE
FORM OF AN ADJECTIVE INDICATING THAT ONE ITEM POSSESSES A QUALITY TO A GREATER DEGREE THAN ANOTHER
SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE
FORM OF AN ADJECTIVE INDICATING THAT ONE ITEM POSSESSES A QUALITY TO THE GREATEST POSSIBLE DEGREE; FOR INSTANCE, GRASS CAN BE GREEN, BUT IT IS GREENEST IN A BASEBALL INFIELD WHEN YOU LISTEN TO A GAME ON THE RADIO AND HAVE TO VISUALIZE THAT GREEN FIELD IN THE MIND
ATTRIBUTIVE
ADJECTIVE OR NOUN THAT DESCRIBES A QUALITY OR CHARACTERISTIC OF A NOUN AND MODIFIES THAT NOUN DIRECTLY, AS OPPOSED TO A PREDICATIVE. ATTRIBUTIVE IS ALSO USED AS AN ADJECTIVE, AS IN THE PHRASE ATTRIBUTIVE NOUN
PREDICATIVE
THE ADJECTIVE FORM OF A VERB AND THE ELEMENTS GOVERNED BY THE VERB IN A CLAUSE OR SENTENCE
FINITE VERB
VERB FORM THAT INDICATES TENSE
NONFINITE VERB
VERB FORM, SUCH AS THE INFINITIVE OR THE PARTICIPLE, THAT DOES NOT EXPRESS TENSE
BARE INFINITIVE
NONFINITE FORM OF A VERB THAT SERVES AS THE BASE FOR INFLECTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OR EXPRESSES THE CORE MEANING OF A VERB, WITHOUT CONCERN FOR NUMBER OR PERSON
PAST TENSE
TENSE THAT INDICATES AN ACTION THAT HAS ALREADY OCCURRED OR A STATE THAT HAS ALREADY BEEN THE CASE
SUPPLETION
PARTIAL MERGER OF TWO VERBS, SO THAT SOME FORMS DERIVE FROM ONE VERB AND SOME FROM THE OTHER, AS WITH GO (FROM THE OLD ENGLISH GAN) AND WENT (FROM OLD ENGLISH WENDAN).
PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
ASPECT THAT INDICATES CONTINUING ACTION, FORMED BY THE APPROPRIATE FORM OF BE + THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PERFECT ASPECT
ASPECT THAT INDICATES COMPLETED ACTION, FORMED BY HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
CONJUGATE
VERB FORM OF A WORD THAT INDICATES TENSE, MOOD, VOICE (ACTIVE OR PASSIVE), ASPECT, PERSON (FIRST, SECOND, OR THIRD), AND NUMBER
TENSE
GRAMMATICAL INDICATION, IN THE FORM OF A VERB OR A VERB PHRASE, OF TIME AT WHICH AN EVENT OR STATE OCCURS
ASPECT
CATEGORY OF VERB MEANING THAT INDICATES WHETHER, FOR INSTANCE, AN ACTION IS IN PROGRESS OR COMPLETED, MOMENTARY OR HABITUAL, ETC.
MODALITY
OR
MOOD
CONDITIONALITY,NECESSITY, POSSIBILITY, ETC. THAT QUALIFY A VERB, EXPRESSED BY VARIOUS MEANS, WHETHER IN A VERB, A MODAL AUXILIARY, CERTAIN CONJUNCTIONS, SENTENCE STRUCTURE, OR IN A COMBINATION OF THESE
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
MOOD THAT EXPRESSES PARTICULAR TYPES OF CONDITIONAL MEANING, ESPECIALLY COMMAND, HYPOTHESIS, OR WISH
EPISTEMIC MODAL AUXILIARY
AUXILIARY VERB USED TO INDICATE THAT THE PROPOSITION UNDERLYING A STATEMENT IS SIMPLY THE CASE OR IS BELIEVED TO BE THE CASE; FOR INSTANCE, IN "DINNER MUST BE READY NOW," MUST FUNCTIONS AS AN EPISTEMIC MODAL AUXILIARY
DEONTIC MODAL AUXILIARY
AUXILIARY VERB USED TO INDICATE THE NECESSITY OR INEVITABILITY OF AN ACTION OR STATE, TO IMPLY AN AGENT'S OBLIGATION TO ACT AS A PREDICATE SPECIFIES, OR TO INDICATE PERMISSION; FOR INSTANCE, "NECESSITY MUST BE INDICATED BY MEANS OF A DEONTIC MODAL AUXILIARY," "MUST" INDICATES A DEONTIC MODAL AUXILIARY
TRANSITIVITY
THE ESSENTIAL PROPERTY OF A VERB THAT REQUIRES A DIRECT OBJECT
INTRANSITIVE VERB
VERB THAT EITHER DOES NOT REQUIRE OR CANNOT TAKE A DIRECT OBJECT; THE ESSENTIAL PROPERTY OF SUCH VERBS IS INTRANSITIVITY
TRANSITIVE VERB
A VERB THAT REQUIRES A DIRECT OBJECT
DITRANSITIVE VERB
VERB THAT APPEARS WITH TWO OBJECTS, AS IN "WE GIVE YOU LOTS OF EXAMPLES"' THE ESSENTIAL PROPERTY OF SUCH VERBS IS DITRANSITIVITY
LINKING VERB
VERB, SUCH AS BE OR SEEM, THAT MORE OR LESS IDENTIFIES THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE OF A SENTENCE
OBJECT-COMPLEMENT VERB
VERB THAT CONNECTS A COMPLEMENT TO AN OBJECT, AS IN 'WE GIVE YOU LOTS OF EXAMPLES"
DIRECT OBJECT
RECIPIENT OF A VERB'S ACTION; IN THE SENTENCE "I WROTE A LETTER TO MY BEST FRIEND" LETTER IS THE DIRECT OBJECT
INDIRECT OBJECT
TO OR FOR WHOM A VERB'S ACTION IS DONE; IN THE SENTENCE, "I WROTE A LETTER TO MY BEST FRIEND" BEST FRIEND IS THE INDIRECT OBJECT
COMPLEMENTS
CONSTITUENT OF A CLAUSE OR SENTENCE THAT COMPLETES THE ACTION OF A VERB BUT IS NOT AN OBJECT; IN "A COMPLEMENT CAN BE FOUND IN THIS SENTENCE," IN THIS SENTENCE FUNCTIONS AS A COMPLEMENT
LINKING VERBS
VERB, SUCH AS BE OR SEEM, THAT MORE OR LESS IDENTIFIES THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE OF A SENTENCE
TEMPORAL ADVERBS
ADVERB THAT DESCRIBES WHEN AN ACTION OR STATE OCCURS, SUCH AS NOW OR SOON
MANNER ADVERBS
ADVERB THAT DESCRIBES HOW AN ACTION OR STATE OCCURS, SUCH AS SOFTLY OR SWIFTLY
DISCOURSE ADVERBS
OR
SENTENCE ADVERBS
ADVERB THAT MODIFIES A SENTENCE OR LONGER SEGMENT OF DISCOURSE, RATHER THAN A PARTICULAR VERB; IN "HOPEFULLY, I'LL ALWAYS USE ADVERBS GRAMMATICALLY," HOPEFULLY, IS A DISCOURSE ADVERB
PREPOSITIONS
WORD, SUCH AS AT, BY, FROM, AND WITH, THAT INDICATES THE RELATION OF A NOUN, PRONOUN, NOUN PHRASE, OR NOMINAL, TO ANOTHER NOUN, ETC., VERB OR ADJECTIVE, ESPECIALLY RELATIONS OF LOCATION, DIRECTION, DURATION, MANNER, ETC.
PHRASAL VERBS
VERB FORMED FROM TWO OR MORE WORDS, SUCH AS BAIL OUT, FREAK OUT, AND PASS OUT.
PARTICLES
VERB FORM THAT FUNCTIONS AS AN ADJECTIVE, AS IN "IT WAS A GRIPPING NARRATIVE"
CONJUNCTION
1: WORD USED TO CONNECT WORDS, PHRASES, CLAUSES, OR SENTENCES. 2: IN NARRATIVE, USE OF ADVERBIALS, CONJUNCTIONS, OR PREPOSITIONS TO PROMOTE COHESION AMONG SENTENCES
COORDINATING CONJUNCTION
CONJUNCTION USED TO INDICATE THAT THE WORDS, PHRASES, OR CLAUSES IT CONNECTS ARE FUNCTIONALLY EQUAL
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION
CONJUNCTION, SUCH AS ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, IF, UNLESS, THAT CONNECTS A MAIN CLAUSE AND A DEPENDENT OR SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION
CONJUNCTION THAT EXPRESSES THE EQUALITY OR ALTERNATIVE VALUE OF ELEMENTS WITHIN A SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE; IN "A CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION EXPRESSES EITHER THE EQUALITY OF ELEMENTS WITHIN A SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE OR THEIR ALTERNATIVE VALUE" EITHER AND OR ARE CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS THAT EXPRESS ALTERNATIVE VALUE
PRONOUN
WORD THAT WITHIN A SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE STANDS IN FOR A NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE
PERSONAL PRONOUN
WORD THAT INDICATES GRAMMATICAL PERSON, NUMBER, AND CASE OF A PERSON OR THING, IN PLACE OF A COMMON NOUN OR NAME; ALSO THE LEXICAL CATEGORY TO WHICH SUCH A WOD BELONGS
INDEFINITE PRONOUN
PRONOUN, LIKE ALL, ANYTHING, EVERYONE, NO ONE, SOMETHING, OR WHATEVER, THAT REPRESENTS AN UNKNOWN OR UNSPECIFIED ELEMENT IN A CLAUSE
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
SET OF WH- PRONOUNS, SUCH AS WHO, WHAT, AND WHICH, THAT REPRESENT UNKNOWN ELEMENTS IN SENTENCES THAT ARE QUESTIONS
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
PRONOUN THAT SPECIFIES A PERSON OR THING, FOR INSTANCE, THIS IN THIS GUY OR THIS APPLE.SUCH PRONOUNS ARE ALSO CALLED DEMONSTRATIVES
RELATIVE PRONOUN
PRONOUN USED TO INTRODUCE A RELATIVE CAUSE, SUCH AS THAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, AND WHOSE
DETERMINER
WORD THAT CO-OCCURS WITH A NOUN TO EXPRESS CERTAIN QUALITIES OF THAT NOUN;FOR INSTANCE, A IN A NOUN INDICATES THAT WE MEAN 'ANY NOUN FROM AMONG ALL NOUNS', WHEREAS THE IN THE NOUN INDICATES THAT WE MEAN 'NOUN PREVIOUSLY SELECTED FROM AMONG ALL NOUNS FOR PURPOSES OF THIS SENTENCE
AUXILIARY VERB
VERB USED IN COMBINATION WITH ANOTHER VERB TO INDICATE TENSE, MOOD, OR ASPECT OF THAT OTHER VERB; IN ENGLISH, WILL, MAY, ETC. ARE AUXILIARY VERBS
MODAL AUXILIARY
VERB USED IN COMBINATION WITH ANOTHER VERB TO INDICATE MODALITY OF THAT OTHER VERB; IN ENGLISH, CAN, MAY, AND MUST, ETC., ARE MODAL AUXILIARIES, ALSO CALLED MODALS
PERIPHRASTIC DO
AUXILIARY DO THAT SUBSTITUTES FOR VERBAL INFLECTION, AS WHEN "I DID LOOK IT UP IN THE GLOSSARY" REPLACES " I LOOKED IT UP IN THE GLOSSARY"