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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is linguistics? What does it deal with?
The study of human language; human nature, nature vs nurture
What the nature vs nurture argument?
That people have a predisposition to learning language in general
Why do we know that we don't store sentencecs in our memory?
language is unboud, and any human can express and comprehend an infintely large number of sentences.
What is the formula for language?
words + rules = sentences= language
What is universal grammar?
rules/patterns that aren't language-specific.
What are common to all languages? (3)
1- particular lexical catergories (nouns, verbs, etc), 2- constraints on types/forms of rules and principles, 3- mechanisms for creating new structures
What is mental grammar?
the system of rules stored in the mind of a speaker that generates the words and sentences of that speaker's langauge
What is the linguist's grammar?
a system of rules that the linguist constructs as a model of the speaker's knowledge of language
What is the goal of linguists?
to build a model of the speaker's knowledge of language usage.
How do linguists achieve this goal?
1- examine date, 2- make generalizations, 3- make hypotheses to explain observed generalization, 4- test predictions of the hypotheses against more date, 5- build theory
What is descriptive grammar?
model/ descriptive of the unconcious rules
What is prescriptive grammar?
arbitrary/ explicit rules set up by society
What does the way children learn language imply?
That they have a genetic predisposition for language, human brain has an especially determined specialization for language
What is mental grammar composed of
innate (u.g.) + learned (spec. lang)
What is the innateness hypo?
the human brain contains a genetically determined predisposition for language.
What is the argument for innateness? (4)
1- uniformity throughout the species, 2- species specificity, 3- critical period, 4- povery of the stimular (children create grammar beyond what they have evidence for)
Why do we think language is its own module? (3)
1- lang undergoes selective breakdown, 2- langauge is processed differentl, 3- lang has its own timetable of development
What is phonetics?
the study of the physical properties of speech sounds?
What is phonology?
the study of the mental representation of speech sounds
What does "articulatory" mean?
how sounds are produced in the vocal tracts
How are consonant sounds created?
obstruction of airflow in vocal tract
How are vowel sounds created?
w/ little or no obstruction of airflow
What are the features of consonants? (3)
1- place of articulation, 2- voicing, 3- manner of articulation
What are the features of vowels? (4)
1- raising/lower the body of the tongue, 2- advance/retract body of tongue, 3- tense/lax, 4- round/unround lips
What symbol do we use in discussing mental representation of phoneme?
What is a linguistic environment?
the phonological context of a sound
What are the steps to finding the inventory of phonemes?
1- look for minimal pair, 2- look for a pattern in no min pairs, show environment 3- find generalization, 4- make rules
When will there be no minimal pairs?
if there are two allophones of the smae phoneme
When will there minimal pairs?
if there are two phones of different phonemes
What is a phoneme?
the abstract representation of a sounds, and the way the sounds is stored in a word in a mutual lexicon
What is a phone?
how sound is actually produced in a given environment
What is an allophone?
member of a set of phones, which are all variants.
What are characteristics of phones of separate phonemes? (3)
1- will be minimal pairs, 2- will be in overlapping distribution, 3- not predictable by rule
What are characteristics of allophones of the same phoneme? (3)
1- no minimal pairs, 2- in complementary distribution, 3- predictable by rule
What are the types of rules? (4)
1- assimilation (changing a sound to match features of neighboring sound), 2- dissimilation (make sounds less like neighbording sound for clarification), 3- deletion (removing segment in pronunciation), 4- insertion (adding something extra)