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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
amelioration
word gets positive connotation over time
nice (used to mean ignorant, absurd)
pejoration
word gets more negative connotation over time
silly (used to mean blessed)
analogical extension
already existing alternation of some pattern extends to new forms which did not formerly undergo the alternation
analogical leveling
reduces the number of allomorphs a form has
makes paradigms more uniform
umlaut
anticipatory assimilation
back vowel fronted
front vowel raised
apocope
loss of word-final segments
assimilation
one sound causes another to be more similar to it
back formation
boundary reanalysis
unexpected directionality to fill a gap

cherise was taken to mean English pl cherries, so cherry was formed
compensatory lengthening
C1VC2, C2->0, V gets lengthened
unconditioned change
sound undergoes a change everywhere it appears in a language

no condition on its placement in order to get the change
dissimilation
sound becomes less like nearby sound
Grassmann's law
Sanskrit dissimilation

1st breathy C in a word becomes unaspirated
epenthesis
segment gets inserted in word, esp word-medially
anaptyxis
epenthesis of a vowel
excresence
epenthesis of a consonant
word-final devoicing
stops and frics and ends of words tend to devoice

Dt. Auslautverhaertung
fission
(unpacking)
opposite of fusion
from original sound, two sounds may develop

Dt borrowing of Fr "ballon" (ballong)
fusion
two original sounds may turn into one sound with some features of both
Grimm's Law
Germanic
p>f
b>p
bh>b
haplology
syllable lost when next to very similar-sounding syllable
hypercorrection
change associated with high social standing used incorrectly in an attempt to affect that standing

He gave it to you and I.
Up with it I will not put!
metaphor
semantic change based on similarity between the original concept named by a word and the target concept named by this word

insult used literally to mean "jump on"

saddle for saddle of mountain
palatalization
assimilatory change based on palatal place of articulation spreading
phonemic merger
two different phonemes become one phoneme

one of the phonemes can be the same before and after the change

r>r
s>r

now r doesn't exist:
ethe > r
s>r
phonemic shift
one phoneme becomes a different phoneme

s>r
reinforcement
inflected word of a particular category gets another instance of a semantically similar morpheme added on

child (sg)
childer (pl) > child+er+en (plpl)
rhotacism
lenition of [s] or [z] to r / V_V
syncope
loss of segment(s) word-medially
vowel harmony
long-distance vowel-specific assimilatory process