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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neutralization and neutralizing rules
when an allophone is a member of two phonemes, you cannot tell which phoneme it belongs to when just looking at it in a word. English flap is an allophone of both /t/ & /d/. Contrast between /t/ & /d/ is neutralized.
onset, nucleus, coda, rime
Part of a syllable. Onset is beginning consonant or consonant cluster. Rime contains nucleus and coda. Nucleus is the core component, required for a syllable- usually vowel or syllabic consonant.
phonotactic constraints
Restrictions on possible combinations of sounds- for example [pk] is not permitted in English.
polysynthetic language
A type of language that attaches several affixes to a stem to indicate grammatical relationships.
production (rules)
Rules that speakers actually apply to form words that are not currently in use in a language. ie. use of -age to form nouns recently, or -ness.
Process of forming new words by doubling either an entire word (total reduplication) or apart of a word (partial reduplication).
root vs. affix
root- aka stem or base. A content morpheme in a given word. Carries symantic content rather than performing a grammatical function.)
Affixes- bound morphemes that change the meaning or syntactic function of a word
A relationship between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other. ie past tense of go is went, not goed.
languages in which affixes are attached to other morphemes, so that a word may be made up of several meaningful elements.
zero derivation
forming of a different part of speech without changing the pronunciation nor spelling of word. butter (noun) becomes butter (verb).
Imitation vs. Reinforcement vs Active Construction.
Immitation- theory that children learn language by hearing and repeating.
Reinforcement- theory that children learn language because they are praised for speaking.
Active Construction- theory that children invent the rules of grammar themselves.