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70 Cards in this Set

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What is Linguistic Anthropology?
Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common cultural representation of natural and social worlds.
Linguistics
Linguistics is the study or science of language.
Anthropology
The study of humanity. What defines human life and society?
Phonology
sound
Syntax
grammatical requirements.
An officially accepted word goes in what?
Oxford English Dictionary
slang
words created by stigmatized groups or the disadvantaged
linguistic innovation
words created by an advantaged group
Linguistic Anthropologists originated how?
By studying endangered languages.
Intonation
variation of pitch
Define, There is no meaning without context.
If someone says table. We all have a dif picture in our heads. Table means dif things to dif people. Funny is another example. Without knowing who said it and where, we don't know what it means.
Any violation of the norm is taken as?
meaning something.
Natural boundaries become what?
linguistic boundaries
Phoneme
is the smallest unit of recognizable sound in a language or dialect
Morpology
The study of word formation.
Semantics
is the study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language
Linguistic Semantics
Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, and proxemics have semantic (meaningful) content, and each has several branches of study. In written language, such things as paragraph structure and punctuation have semantic content
Syntax
Grammar, word order, the requirements of a sentence.
The International Phonetic Alphabet
Scientific classification of sounds.
articulation
the production of sound, location of and manner of. Like where in your mouth you made the sound.
bilabial
two lips - B
labiodental
lip to tooth - f
dental
teeth together - t
alveolar
tongue against the ridge just above the front teeth - l
retroflex
tongue backward - y as in yet
glottal sounds
made by trapping air
voiced sounds
closed and vibrating - b
unvoiced sounds
open - p
nasal sounds
m/n
English language has how many sounds
44 sounds
13 vowel sounds
31 consonant sounds
Language with the smallest number of sounds
Hawaiians 13
Rottakas - 11
Languages with the largest sounds
!xu - 141
kung1 - 96/98
both in Southern Africa
morpheme
the smallest meaningful unit in grammar
how many morphemes does booksellers have?
4
Do affixes stand alone in morphemes?
no
What are affixes?
prefix - re
suffix - ed
affix - in the middle
What is a freestanding morpheme? This Stands alone.
a word that stands alone like
cat
dog
turn
throw
what is a Nonfreestanding morpheme? This is dependent
all affixes
like
s
re
ed
morophemes modify what?
the meaning of the words
amigo
amiga
changes the gender
case
classification of nouns
Isolating Language - easiest.
is a language in which almost every word consists of a single morpheme
Vietnamese
A polysynthetic language is
is a language in which words tend to consist of several morphemes
Most complex
arctic Canada
Agglutinating language is
sentences are simple but words are complex
Hungarian
Finnish
Syntax
the rules for word order to create sentences
for us, subject, verb, object SVO
all languages have a rules of order
SOV
latin, Korean
VOS
VOS – Philippines
VSO
VSO – welsh Hawaiian
OBV
OBV – the rarest – the syntax of yoda
A brave man, your father was.
Semantics
makes a sentence coherent
the study of meaning in language
Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, and proxemics have semantic (meaningful) content
paralanguage
The study of vocal (and sometimes non-vocal) signals beyond the basic verbal message or speech. This includes pitch, loudness, rate, and fluency.
metalinguistics
The study of the interrelationship between language and other cultural behavior.
intonation
the rise and fall of your voice, or the rise and fall of pitch that tells us what you're saying
elements - how you produce sound
stress
pitch
length
loudness
stress
emphasis of sound, changes the meaning of word by what you emphasize. ex. where is the money?
pitch
sometimes called tone, the frequency of sound.
ex. raising the pitch at the end makes it a question
length
exaggeration, emphasis
ex. yeah
the duration of a vowel, syllable
loudness
the intensity of the sound
ex. don't sleep in class
ethnography
the study and systematic recording of human cultures
speech community
the group to which a particular ethnographic description applies. you can be part of more than one speech community
speech situation
the group to which a particular ethnographic description applies
speech events
takes place within a speech situation and is composed of 1 or more speech actions (conversation)
speech act
joke, greetings
interpretation
reading between the lines
instrumentalities
includes both channels and forms of speech
channel the way the message travels from one to another
forms
language and their subdivision, dialects, code, varieties, registers
norms
both of interaction and interpretation
genres
categories like poems, myths, proverbs, lecture, commercial messages
introspection
when a scholar studies her own speech community
participant observer
participate in and observe the group
philology
The study of language from written historical sources and the use of written materials like etiquette books or newspapers advice columns
What does SPEAKING stand for in the Speaking Model?
scene/setting
particpiants
ends - goals, purpose, outcomes
a - act sequeence - like applauding a movie
k - key
i - instrumentality
n - formal rules that govern the event
g - genre