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45 Cards in this Set

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Theoretical Linguistics
Focuses on underlying structures and features to understand the nature of human language. Not interested in cultural or social contexts, focused on "ideal" language use. Often collect data out of context (e.g. asking a native speaker if a certain sentence structure feels right.)
Morpheme
Smallest units of meaning in a language. Part of a word that has a consistent meaning or function. 2 Types: Bases and affixes. Bases=foundation of word (eg. farm) Affixes=added to bases to make more words (e.g. er, ing)
Free Morpheme
Can stand on their own as words (e.g. help)
Bound Morphemes
Must be attached to another word. They can't stand alone (e.g. anti, ism, er)
Etic View
The view from the outside of a system (phonetic)
Emic View
View from the inside of a system (phonemic)
"This is how native speakers think of their language"
Phonemics
(Phonology) analysis of the way sounds are arranged in language. Basic units are phonemes.
Morphology
The study of the smallest units of meaning in a language and how these units are put together to make words.
Prefix
A type of affix which precedes the base (e.g. anti, non)
Suffix
A type of affix which follows the base (e.g. ism, ing)
Syntax
Refers to the structure of sentences and the relationship of parts of sentences or clauses to one another. Our knowledge of structure allows us to make guesses as to meaning
Semantics
Study of word meanings and structure. (e.g. count nouns vs. mass nouns- 3 apples vs. 3 sugars)
Phone
Basic units of phonetics. Sounds of the phonetic chart placed in [square brackets] e.g [p]
Word Order Typologies
Languages vary in terms of the basic order of word types in a sentence (e.g. some use Subject, Object, Verb (SOV)-some use (SVO) some use (VSO))
Phoneme
Sounds that function to distinguish one word from another in a language (Overlapping distribution=different phonemes, Complementary distribution=same phonemes)
Vowel
Sound made with minimal constriction in airflow
Consonant
Sound made with audible constriction in airflow
Manual Language
Language in which the hands, upper body and face are used instead of the vocal tract to produce language
Proxemics
Type of nonverbal communication, which studies how people perceive and use space (e.g. sitting in a classroom, or how full is a full bus)
Kinesics
Study of body movements, facial expressions and gestures. Nonverbal communication (e.g. thumbs up or mimicking)
Semantic Inversion
A form of semantic shift where a word takes on the opposite meaning (e.g. nasty) Common in slang
Blending
Combining multiple words to make one word (smog, brunch, blog)
Clipping
Chopping down words (fridge, cell, nuke)
Coinage
Making up new words (from nowhere)-viagra, byte
Borrowing
Two main types are Lexical borrowing and Structural borrowing. Lexical borrowing is the adoption of loan words from other languages (English: Taco, kimono saurkraut). Structural borrowing has 3 types: syntactic (word order), phonological (rouge, yech), morphological ("er" suffix from latin -arius)
Vowel
Sound made with minimal constriction in airflow
Consonant
Sound made with audible constriction in airflow
Semantic Inversion
To turn it over, a complete reversal of the meaning of a word (e.g. nasty)
Blending
Putting multiple words together to form one word (e.g. smog, brunch)
Clipping
Chopping down words (e.g. fridge, cell)
Coinage
Making up words from nowhere (e.g. viagra, byte)
Borrowing
2 Types:
Lexical Borrowing: The adoption of loanwords from other languages (e.g. taco, kimono)
Structural Borrowing: includes 3 subgroups, Phonological (rouge, yech), Morphological ("er" suffix from latin -arius), and Syntacic Borrowing (word order, "You want I should choke?"
Lateralization
Each hemisphere of the brain is oriented towards key tasks, the left hemisphere does a lot of language work (Wernicke's are and Brocas area) while the right hemisphere is more visual and spatial
Pidgin
A language that has developed out of two unrelated languages. A pidgin is a trade “language” – actually it is grammatically simpler in form than a true language and does not have full elaboration of function. (e.g. African languages formed during European colonization)
Creole
When a highly elaborated pidgin (one with that can serve all the communication needs of its speakers) reaches the point where children are learning it as their first language, it has become a creole (e.g. Tok Pisin in Papa New Guinea)
Acronym
Words by taking the initial letter of each word in a sentence and spelling a word with them (e.g. AWOL, DVD)
Neologisms
New terms that enter languages (new neologisms=dank)
Semantic Shift
Changing the Meaning of a word (several types)
Semantic Degredation
When a word acquires a more derogatory meaning over time (e.g. Lust)
Semantic Elevation
When a word becomes grander over time (e.g. squire)
Semantic Extension
Expanding the meaning of a wors (e.g. Broadcast-used to mean tossing seeds, now it is tied more to technology)
Semantic Reduction
Reducing the meaning of a word from a general term to more specific (e.g. girl, used to just mean young person)
Protolanguage
An ancient language from which other languages of a given family or group are descended
Historical Linguistics
The study of how languages change and develop over time, and how languages are related to each other.
Official Language of Belize
English (creole)