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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of how speech sounds are organized in the linguistic competence of a native speaker
PHONOLOGY
sounds accompanied by an extra puff of air
ASPIRATED STOP
part of a speaker's linguistic competence.
PHONETIC INVENTORY
Two words that differ by only one sound in the same position and they differ in meaning
MINIMAL PAIRS
Give a minimal pair where the sounds differ in the initial position:
PAT/BAT
Give a minimal pair where the sounds differ in the medial position:
FAT/FIT
Give a minimal pair where the sounds differ in the final position:
SEE/SAW
Word pairs that look much like minimal pairs and are nearly identical. These pairs show how certain sounds change the words' meaning.
NEAR MINIMAL PAIRS
an abstract concept used by linguists to represent each of the meaningful sounds in a native speaker's linguistic competence
PHONEME
The proceding and following sounds that surround a phoneme
PHONETIC ENVIRONMENT
Sounds stored in a native speaker's phonemic inventory are called
PHONEME
Sounds produced depending on the phonetic environment are called
ALLOPHONE
Phonemes are written between ____ and allophones are written between _____
SLASHES; BRACKETS
In transcription, nasal vowels are indicated by putting a ____ over the vowel
tilde [~]
If the transcription shows allophonic variation, as in [bĩn] 'bean', it is called
NARROW TRANSCRIPTION
If the transcription is less detailed and doesn't show allophonic variation, as in [bin] 'bean', it is called
BROAD TRANSCRIPTION
The phonemes of a language comprise the ___________ of that language.
PHONETIC INVENTORY
Vowel _____________ occurs when speakers unconsciously anticipate the lowering of the velum for a following nasal consonant.
NASALIZATION
___________ refers to sounds that are produced with an accompanying burst of air.
ASPIRATION
The _________________ of a language is organized to differentiate those sounds which contribute to meaningful differences in words from those which do not.
PHONEMIC INVENTORY
Different sounds that occur in exactly the same phonetic environment are said to be in
COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION
The ______________ of a particular sound is determined by the sounds that occur around it.
PHONETIC ENVIRONMENT
_____________ occur in contrastive distribution with other phonemes.
ALLOPHONES
Different sounds that cannot occur in the same environment are in _____________
CONTRASTIVE DISTRIBUTION
"where one sound can occur, the other one never does"
COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION
When speakers can substitute one sound for another in the same phonetic environment with no change in meaning
FREE VARIATION
occurs when the blockage of air flow is not released at the end of its articulation.
UNRELEASED STOP
The absence of possible sound sequences in a language
ACCIDENTAL GAP
Constraints on allowed and disallowed sound sequences
PHONOTACTICS
When phonological deletion occurs...
a Phoneme is omitted in a particular phonetic environment
Released and unreleased voiceless stops in English are in...
FREE VARIATION
Phonological contract is used to identify
PHONEMES
In English, nasal and non-nasal vowels are in..
COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION
Voiced and voiceless stops in English are/are not contrastive distribution
ARE NOT
Narrow transcrition shows ____ variation
ALLOPHONIC