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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
processes of language that affect speech sounds/pronunciation
phonetic change
the study of speech sounds
phonetics
processes of language change that alters the number or distribution of phonemes in a language
phonological change
the study of the organization of language sounds
phonology
the smallest unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances. It is a group of sounds which are all perceived to have the same function by speakers of the dialect
phoneme
the 2 best understood types of change
phonetic and phonological change
the study of the make-up of words
morphology
studies patterns of word-formation within and across languages, and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages, how the means of expression change over time
morphological change
change in the meaning of words in a language
semantic change
the study of meaning
semantics
the study of how phrases change. can be the result of language contact or internal motivations.
syntactic change
the least understood linguistic change
syntactic change
the study of how phrases and sentences larger than the word are constructed
syntax
goals of historical linguistics
to understand language change in general; to understand the kinds of changes that words have undergone and the techniques or methods we have at our disposal to recover this history.
the study of the true or original meaning of a word
etymology
the study of the history of a single language
philology
concerned with change in language or languages OVER TIME
diachronic linguistics
deals with a language at a single point in time
synchronic linguistics
when one dialect/language takes loanwords from another dialect/language. this is an external cause of language change
borrowing
languages in contact may share linguistic material (sounds, word, idioms, syntactic structure) between them. This is an external cause of language change.
diffusion
change that recurs generally and takes place uniformly wherever the phonetic circumstances in which the change happens are encountered
regular sound change
occur irregularly, not clearly conditioned by phonetic factors. They are changes that were not applied to all possible phonetic instances of a sound in a certain phonetic environment.
sporadic sound change
one sound becomes more similar to another. Change is brought about by the influence of a neighboring sound
assimilation
sound becomes identical to another by taking all its phonetic features
total assimilation
assimilating sound acquires some traits of another
partial assimilation
sound that undergoes the change comes earlier in the word than the conditioning environment
regressive assimilation
the sound that undergoes the change comes later in the word than the conditioning environment
progressive assimilation
nasals change to agree with the point of articulation of following stops (np>mp; mt>nt; nk>ngk)
nasal assimilation
sounds become voiced between vowels
intervocalic voicing
change in which s (or z) becomes r; usually takes place between vowels or glides (VsV>VrV)
rhotacism
this is distant assimilation—a sound change in which a back vowel is fronted when followed by a front vowel (or [j]).
umlaut
vowels become nasalized in the environment of nasal consonants
nasalization
devoicing of word-final stops or obstruents (sometimes sonorants or vowels)
final devoicing
k>tS; t>tS; s>S
palatalization
change in which sounds become less similar to one another. usually sporadic, non-adjacent. common with [l] and [r] in many languages. common with nasal sounds
dissimilation
famous sound change in Indo-European linguistics. A case of regular dissimlation in Greek and Sanskrit where in roots with 2 aspirated stops the first dissimilates to an unaspirated stop
grassman's law
sound change in many East African Bantu languages in which 2 voiceless consonants in a word dissimilate so the first becomes voiced
dahl's law
change in which a repeated sequence of sounds is simplified to a single occurrence
• Tatasa>tasa
haplology
deletion of a vowel from the interior of a word
• Atata>atta
syncope
the deletion of a sound, usually a vowel, at the end of a word
• Tata>tat
apocope
changes which delete the initial sound (usually a vowel) of a word
• Atata>tata
aphaeresis
pp>p; tt>t; kk>k
degemination
a former dipthong changes into a single vowel
monopthongization
a vowel sound that starts near the articulatory position for one vowel and moves toward the position for another)
dipthong
inserts a sound into a word
insertion/epethesis/addition
a consonant is inserted between other consonants—phonetic
excrescense
a sound is inserted at the beginning of a word
• Tata>atata
prothesis
An extra vowel is inserted between 2 consonants
• Vccv>vcvcv
anaptyxis
adds a sound (usually a vowel) to the end of a word
• Tat>tata
paragoge
the dipthongization of a short vowel inparticular contexts
dipthongization/bowel breaking
the transposition of sounds
• Asta>atsa; asata>atasa
• Happens often with “r” and “l” in languages
metathesis
adds to or deletes from the number of phonemes (basic sounds) of a language.
phonemic change
changes in which 2 sounds merge into one, leaving fewer distinct sounds (phonemes) in the phonological inventory than there were before
merger
the sounds in question do not change, but the other sounds in their environment merge and cause the phonemic status of the sounds to change from being predictable/conditioned to being unpredictable/distinctive
split
doesn’t alter the total number of phonemes in a language
non-phonemic/allophonic/phonetic change
2 noncontrastive variants of one phonetic form (the [k] in kill and skill)
allophones
occurs in a specific environment, regularly, but not elsewhere. When a sound change takes place only in certain contexts (dependent on neighboring sounds, sounds position within words, etc).
conditioned change
when a sound change occurs generally and is not dependent on the phonetic context in which it occurs (not dependent on neighboring sounds/environment)
unconditioned change
change in which an original single vowel changes to a sequence of 2 vowel segments which together occupy the nucleus of a single syllable [i]>[ai]; [u]>[au]
dipthongization
a former dipthong changes into a single vowel
monopthongization
changes in which low vowels change to mid (or high) vowels
vowel raising
high vowels become mid or low vowels, or mid vowels become low
vowel lowering
vowels become nasalized in the environment of nasal consonants
nasalization
resulting sound is somehow weaker in articulation than original sound
lenition (weakening)
resulting sound is stronger in articulation than original sound
strengthening
the doubling of consonants (t>tt)
gemination
pp>p, tt>t, kk>k
degemination
a sound, usually a stop, sometimes a fricative, becomes an affricate
affrication
a composite speech sound consisting of a stop and a fricative articulated at the same point (as `ch' in `chair' and `j' in `joy'
affricate
an affricate or a stop is weakened to become a fricative
spirantization/fricativization
affricate becomes a fricative
deaffrication
sound is lengthened (usually a vowel)
lengthening
sound is shortened
shortening
interconnected sound changes that appear to be connected and dependent on each other
chain shift
one change creates a hole in the phonemic pattern, and another change fills in the hole
pull chain
sound moves away from the encroaching change to maintain distinctions important to meaning
push chain
which is more frequent: pull chain or push chain?
pull chain (ex: great vowel shift
important set of sound changes in historical linguistics. involved in the history of the comparative method and the regularity hypothesis. voiceless stops>voiceless fricatives; voiced stops>voiceless stops; voiced aspirated stops>plain voiced stops
Grimm's Law
english had many interrelated vowel changes in which long vowels systematically raised, and the highest long vowels dipthongized
the english great vowel shift
the law that voiceless stops and fricatives in a root became voiced after unaccented voiced segments
verner's law
the principle that sound laws suffer no exceptions
the neogrammarian hypothesis aka the regularity principle
languages that descend from a single original language called a protolanguage are what?
genetically related
reconstructed sounds
protowords
the once spoken ancestral language from which daughter languages descend
proto-language
languages which are related by having descended from common ancestor (belong to same family)
sister languages
word/morpheme which is related to a word/morpheme in sister language by having been inherited by these sister languages from a common word/morpheme of the protolanguage from which these sister languages descend
cognate
set of cognates
cognate set
the method that compares cognates to reconstruct ancestral form
comparative method
set of cognate sounds that are assumed to recur in various cognate sets
sound correspondence
the desendent in a daughter language is a ___________ of the original sound of the protolanguage
reflex
the mutually exclusive relationship between two phonetically similar segments. It exists when one segment occurs in an environment where the other segment never occurs.
complementary distribution
are in complementary distribution
allosets
some sound changes that recur in languages go in one direction (A>B) but not in the reverse (B>A)
Directionality
it is more likely that one language would have undergone a sound change than that several languages would independently have undergone the sound change
Majority-Wins Principle
the criterion that when multiple alternatives are available, the one with the fewest independent changes most likely is correct
Economy
rule of thumb to see whether individual sounds postulated fit the overall phonological pattern of protolanguage
phonological fit
see whether the reconstructed pattern is consistent with linguistic universals and typological expectations
typological fit
minimal meaningful language unit; it cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units
morpheme
what are the 4 basic assumptions of the comparative method?
1. the protolanguage was uniform, with no dialect variation
2. language splits are sudden
3. after the split-up of the protolanguage, there is no subsequent contact among the related languages
4. sound change is regular
words come together not because of inheritance but because of contact between cultures
diffusion
stages in between sound changes. for example, when f>h, the is probably a stage in between for f to become voiced, so it is f>v>h
intermediate stages
speech sounds produced by forcing air through a constricted passage (as `f', `s', `z', or `th' in both `thin' and `then')
fricatives